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Electrochemical production of magnetite nanoparticles for sulfide control in sewers

(2017) ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY. 51(21). p.12229-12234
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Abstract
Recently, naturally occurring magnetite (Fe3O4) has emerged as a new material for sulfide control in sewers. However, unrefined magnetite could have high heavy metal contents (e.g., Cr, Zn, Ni, Sn, etc.) and the capacity to remove dissolved sulfide is reasonably limited due to relatively large particle sizes. To overcome the drawbacks of unrefined magnetite we used an electrochemical system with mild steel as sacrificial electrodes to in-situ generate high strength solutions of plate-like magnetite nanoparticles (MNP). MNP with a size range between 120 and 160 nm were electrochemically generated at 9.35 +/- 0.28 g Fe3O4-Fe/L, resulting in a Coulombic efficiency (CE) for iron oxidation of 93.5 +/- 2.8%. The produced MNP were found to effectively reduce sulfide levels in sewage from 12.7 +/- 0.3 to 0.2 +/- 0.0 mg S/L at a sulfide-to-MNP ratio of 0.26 g S/g Fe3O4-Fe. Subsequently, MNP were continuously generated with polarity switching at stable cell voltage for 31 days at 4.53 +/- 0.35 g Fe3O4-Fe/L with a CE for iron oxidation of 92.4 +/- 7.2%. The continuously produced MNP reduced sulfide at similar levels to around 0.2 mg S/L at a ratio of 0.28 g S/g Fe3O4-Fe.
Keywords
DISSOLVED SULFIDE, PARTICLE-SIZE, WASTE-WATER, ADSORPTION, ELECTROCOAGULATION, REACTIVITY, CORROSION, EMISSION, SYSTEMS

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Chicago
Lin, Hui-Wen, Kenny Couvreur, Bogdan C Donose, Korneel Rabaey, Zhiguo Yuan, and Ilje Pikaar. 2017. “Electrochemical Production of Magnetite Nanoparticles for Sulfide Control in Sewers.” Environmental Science & Technology 51 (21): 12229–12234.
APA
Lin, H.-W., Couvreur, K., Donose, B. C., Rabaey, K., Yuan, Z., & Pikaar, I. (2017). Electrochemical production of magnetite nanoparticles for sulfide control in sewers. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, 51(21), 12229–12234.
Vancouver
1.
Lin H-W, Couvreur K, Donose BC, Rabaey K, Yuan Z, Pikaar I. Electrochemical production of magnetite nanoparticles for sulfide control in sewers. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY. 2017;51(21):12229–34.
MLA
Lin, Hui-Wen, Kenny Couvreur, Bogdan C Donose, et al. “Electrochemical Production of Magnetite Nanoparticles for Sulfide Control in Sewers.” ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 51.21 (2017): 12229–12234. Print.
@article{8542359,
  abstract     = {Recently, naturally occurring magnetite (Fe3O4) has emerged as a new material for sulfide control in sewers. However, unrefined magnetite could have high heavy metal contents (e.g., Cr, Zn, Ni, Sn, etc.) and the capacity to remove dissolved sulfide is reasonably limited due to relatively large particle sizes. To overcome the drawbacks of unrefined magnetite we used an electrochemical system with mild steel as sacrificial electrodes to in-situ generate high strength solutions of plate-like magnetite nanoparticles (MNP). MNP with a size range between 120 and 160 nm were electrochemically generated at 9.35 +/- 0.28 g Fe3O4-Fe/L, resulting in a Coulombic efficiency (CE) for iron oxidation of 93.5 +/- 2.8\%. The produced MNP were found to effectively reduce sulfide levels in sewage from 12.7 +/- 0.3 to 0.2 +/- 0.0 mg S/L at a sulfide-to-MNP ratio of 0.26 g S/g Fe3O4-Fe. Subsequently, MNP were continuously generated with polarity switching at stable cell voltage for 31 days at 4.53 +/- 0.35 g Fe3O4-Fe/L with a CE for iron oxidation of 92.4 +/- 7.2\%. The continuously produced MNP reduced sulfide at similar levels to around 0.2 mg S/L at a ratio of 0.28 g S/g Fe3O4-Fe.},
  author       = {Lin, Hui-Wen and Couvreur, Kenny and Donose, Bogdan C and Rabaey, Korneel and Yuan, Zhiguo and Pikaar, Ilje},
  issn         = {0013-936X},
  journal      = {ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE \& TECHNOLOGY},
  keyword      = {DISSOLVED SULFIDE,PARTICLE-SIZE,WASTE-WATER,ADSORPTION,ELECTROCOAGULATION,REACTIVITY,CORROSION,EMISSION,SYSTEMS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {21},
  pages        = {12229--12234},
  title        = {Electrochemical production of magnetite nanoparticles for sulfide control in sewers},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.7b01748},
  volume       = {51},
  year         = {2017},
}

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