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Testing practices and attitudes toward tests and testing : an international survey

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Abstract
On behalf of the International Test Commission and the European Federation of Psychologists' Associations a world-wide survey on the opinions of professional psychologists on testing practices was carried out. The main objective of this study was to collect data for a better understanding of the state of psychological testing worldwide. These data could guide the actions and measures taken by ITC, EFPA, and other stakeholders. A questionnaire was administered to 20,467 professional psychologists from 29 countries. Five scales were constructed relating to: concern over incorrect test use, regulations on tests and testing, internet and computerized testing, appreciation of tests, and knowledge and training relating to test use. Equivalence across countries was evaluated using the alignment method, four scales demonstrated acceptable levels of invariance. Multilevel analysis was used to determine how scores were related to age, gender, and specialization, as well as how scores varied between countries. Although the results show a high appreciation of tests in general, the appreciation of internet and computerized testing is much lower. These scales show low variability over countries, whereas differences between countries on the other reported scales are much greater. This implies the need for some overarching improvements as well as country-specific actions.
Keywords
psychological testing, testing practices, test use, International Test Commission, European Federation of Psychologists' Associations

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MLA
Evers, Arne, et al. “Testing Practices and Attitudes toward Tests and Testing : An International Survey.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF TESTING, vol. 17, no. 2, 2017, pp. 158–90.
APA
Evers, A., McCormick, C. M., Hawley, L. R., Muñiz, J., Balboni, G., Bartram, D., … Zhang, J. (2017). Testing practices and attitudes toward tests and testing : an international survey. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF TESTING, 17(2), 158–190.
Chicago author-date
Evers, Arne, Carina M. McCormick, Leslie R. Hawley, José Muñiz, Giulia Balboni, Dave Bartram, Dusica Boben, et al. 2017. “Testing Practices and Attitudes toward Tests and Testing : An International Survey.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF TESTING 17 (2): 158–90.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Evers, Arne, Carina M. McCormick, Leslie R. Hawley, José Muñiz, Giulia Balboni, Dave Bartram, Dusica Boben, Jens Egeland, Karma El-Hassan, José R. Fernández-Hermida, Saul Fine, Örjan Frans, Grazina Gintiliené, Carmen Hagemeister, Peter Halama, Dragos Iliescu, Aleksandra Jaworowska, Paul Jiménez, Marina Manthouli, Krunoslav Matesic, Lars Michaelsen, Andrew Mogaji, James Morley-Kirk, Sándor Rózsa, Lorraine Rowlands, Mark Schittekatte, H. Canan Sümer, Tono Suwartono, Tomáš Urbánek, Solange Wechsler, Tamara Zelenevska, Svetoslav Zanev, and Jianxin Zhang. 2017. “Testing Practices and Attitudes toward Tests and Testing : An International Survey.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF TESTING 17 (2): 158–190.
Vancouver
1.
Evers A, McCormick CM, Hawley LR, Muñiz J, Balboni G, Bartram D, et al. Testing practices and attitudes toward tests and testing : an international survey. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF TESTING. 2017;17(2):158–90.
IEEE
[1]
A. Evers et al., “Testing practices and attitudes toward tests and testing : an international survey,” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF TESTING, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 158–190, 2017.
@article{8542287,
  abstract     = {On behalf of the International Test Commission and the European Federation of Psychologists' Associations a world-wide survey on the opinions of professional psychologists on testing practices was carried out. The main objective of this study was to collect data for a better understanding of the state of psychological testing worldwide. These data could guide the actions and measures taken by ITC, EFPA, and other stakeholders. A questionnaire was administered to 20,467 professional psychologists from 29 countries. Five scales were constructed relating to: concern over incorrect test use, regulations on tests and testing, internet and computerized testing, appreciation of tests, and knowledge and training relating to test use. Equivalence across countries was evaluated using the alignment method, four scales demonstrated acceptable levels of invariance. Multilevel analysis was used to determine how scores were related to age, gender, and specialization, as well as how scores varied between countries. Although the results show a high appreciation of tests in general, the appreciation of internet and computerized testing is much lower. These scales show low variability over countries, whereas differences between countries on the other reported scales are much greater. This implies the need for some overarching improvements as well as country-specific actions.},
  author       = {Evers, Arne and McCormick, Carina M. and Hawley, Leslie R. and Muñiz, José and Balboni, Giulia and Bartram, Dave and Boben, Dusica and Egeland, Jens and El-Hassan, Karma and Fernández-Hermida, José R. and Fine, Saul and Frans, Örjan and Gintiliené, Grazina and Hagemeister, Carmen and Halama, Peter and Iliescu, Dragos and Jaworowska, Aleksandra and Jiménez, Paul and Manthouli, Marina and Matesic, Krunoslav and Michaelsen, Lars and Mogaji, Andrew and Morley-Kirk, James and Rózsa, Sándor and Rowlands, Lorraine and Schittekatte, Mark and Sümer, H. Canan and Suwartono, Tono and Urbánek, Tomáš and Wechsler, Solange and Zelenevska, Tamara and Zanev, Svetoslav and Zhang, Jianxin},
  issn         = {1530-5058},
  journal      = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF TESTING},
  keywords     = {psychological testing,testing practices,test use,International Test Commission,European Federation of Psychologists' Associations},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {158--190},
  title        = {Testing practices and attitudes toward tests and testing : an international survey},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15305058.2016.1216434},
  volume       = {17},
  year         = {2017},
}

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