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The association of emotion-driven impulsiveness, cognitive inflexibility and decision-making with weight status in European adolescents

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Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between emotion-driven impulsiveness, cognitive inflexibility, decision-making and weight status as reflected in body mass index (BMI) z-score (zBMI) in European adolescents. METHODS: In total, 3354 adolescents aged between 12 and 18 years from the I,Family cohort completed the questionnaire-based negative urgency subscale from the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale to measure emotion-driven impulsiveness in 2013/2014. Furthermore, 1584 adolescents completed the computer-based Bergs Card Sorting Test to measure cognitive inflexibility, and 1780 adolescents completed the Hungry Donkey Test to assess decision-making ability. Anthropometric variables were measured objectively; confounding variables (age, sex, socioeconomic status and country) were assessed using a questionnaire. Mixed-effect regression analyses were conducted for each outcome of the test or questionnaire as a predictor with standardised BMI (zBMI) as the dependent variable in order to investigate association between markers of cognitive functioning and zBMI. RESULTS: After controlling for confounders, results showed that emotion-driven impulsiveness beta=0.18, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.13 to 0.24, P < 0.001) and cognitive inflexibility (beta = 0.01, 95% CI: 0.002 to 0.02, P=0.016) were positively associated with zBMI. However, decision-making ability was not significantly related to zBMI (beta = 0.001, 95% CI: 0.001 to 0.003, P=0.47). CONCLUSIONS: More emotion-driven impulsiveness and reduced cognitive flexibility were associated with a higher zBMI in adolescents across Europe. These results may indicate that being impulsive in negative situations and having difficulties changing mental sets increase the susceptibility for unhealthy weight development. Reducing impulsivity and training cognitive flexibility seem promising targets for the prevention and intervention programmes of obesity.
Keywords
BODY-MASS INDEX, PREFRONTAL CORTEX, EXCESS WEIGHT, UNITED-STATES, OBESITY, OVERWEIGHT, CHILDHOOD, EPIDEMIC, TRENDS, FUTURE

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Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

Chicago
Coumans, JMJ, UN Danner, W Ahrens, A Hebestreit, T Intemann, YA Kourides, L Lissner, et al. 2018. “The Association of Emotion-driven Impulsiveness, Cognitive Inflexibility and Decision-making with Weight Status in European Adolescents.” International Journal of Obesity 42 (4): 655–661.
APA
Coumans, J., Danner, U., Ahrens, W., Hebestreit, A., Intemann, T., Kourides, Y., Lissner, L., et al. (2018). The association of emotion-driven impulsiveness, cognitive inflexibility and decision-making with weight status in European adolescents. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBESITY, 42(4), 655–661.
Vancouver
1.
Coumans J, Danner U, Ahrens W, Hebestreit A, Intemann T, Kourides Y, et al. The association of emotion-driven impulsiveness, cognitive inflexibility and decision-making with weight status in European adolescents. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBESITY. 2018;42(4):655–61.
MLA
Coumans, JMJ et al. “The Association of Emotion-driven Impulsiveness, Cognitive Inflexibility and Decision-making with Weight Status in European Adolescents.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBESITY 42.4 (2018): 655–661. Print.
@article{8542110,
  abstract     = {OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between emotion-driven impulsiveness, cognitive inflexibility, decision-making and weight status as reflected in body mass index (BMI) z-score (zBMI) in European adolescents. 
METHODS: In total, 3354 adolescents aged between 12 and 18 years from the I,Family cohort completed the questionnaire-based negative urgency subscale from the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale to measure emotion-driven impulsiveness in 2013/2014. Furthermore, 1584 adolescents completed the computer-based Bergs Card Sorting Test to measure cognitive inflexibility, and 1780 adolescents completed the Hungry Donkey Test to assess decision-making ability. Anthropometric variables were measured objectively; confounding variables (age, sex, socioeconomic status and country) were assessed using a questionnaire. Mixed-effect regression analyses were conducted for each outcome of the test or questionnaire as a predictor with standardised BMI (zBMI) as the dependent variable in order to investigate association between markers of cognitive functioning and zBMI. 
RESULTS: After controlling for confounders, results showed that emotion-driven impulsiveness beta=0.18, 95\% confidence interval (CI): 0.13 to 0.24, P {\textlangle} 0.001) and cognitive inflexibility (beta = 0.01, 95\% CI: 0.002 to 0.02, P=0.016) were positively associated with zBMI. However, decision-making ability was not significantly related to zBMI (beta = 0.001, 95\% CI: 0.001 to 0.003, P=0.47). 
CONCLUSIONS: More emotion-driven impulsiveness and reduced cognitive flexibility were associated with a higher zBMI in adolescents across Europe. These results may indicate that being impulsive in negative situations and having difficulties changing mental sets increase the susceptibility for unhealthy weight development. Reducing impulsivity and training cognitive flexibility seem promising targets for the prevention and intervention programmes of obesity.},
  author       = {Coumans, JMJ and Danner, UN and Ahrens, W and Hebestreit, A and Intemann, T and Kourides, YA and Lissner, L and Michels, Nathalie and Moreno, LA and Russo, P and Stomfai, S and Veidebaum, T and Adan, RAH},
  issn         = {0307-0565},
  journal      = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBESITY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {655--661},
  title        = {The association of emotion-driven impulsiveness, cognitive inflexibility and decision-making with weight status in European adolescents},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2017.270},
  volume       = {42},
  year         = {2018},
}

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