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Timing of solid food introduction and association with later childhood overweight and obesity : the IDEFICS study

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Abstract
This study investigated associations between timing of solid food introduction and childhood obesity and explored maternal characteristics influencing early feeding practices. Cross-sectional data from children 2-9years (n=10,808; 50.5% boys) residing in 8 European countries of the IDEFICS study (2007-2008) were included. Late solid food introduction (7months of age) was associated with an increased prevalence of later childhood overweight/obesity among exclusively breastfed children (OR [odds ratio]: 1.38, 95% CI [confidence interval] [1.01, 1.88]). In contrast, early solid food introduction (<4months of age) was associated with lower prevalence of overweight/obesity among children that ceased exclusive breastfeeding earlier than 4 months (OR: 0.63, 95% CI [0.47, 0.84]). Children that were introduced to solids right after 6months exclusive breastfeeding and continued to receive breastmilk (12months) were less likely to become overweight/obese (OR: 0.67, 95% CI [0.51, 0.88]) compared to children that discontinued to receive breastmilk. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, country, birth weight, parental education level, parental body mass index, tobacco use in pregnancy, gestational weight gain, and gestational diabetes. Underweight mothers, overweight mothers, mothers who reported daily smoking during pregnancy, and low-educated mothers were less likely to follow recommendations on breastfeeding and timely solids introduction. Future studies should examine whether guidelines for solid food introduction timing have to distinguish between exclusively breastfed, formula fed, and too early exclusive breastfeeding-ceased infants. There is also need for more prospective studies; recall bias was an important current limitation. In conclusion, health professionals should emphasize benefits of breastfeeding and appropriate solid food introduction, especially to mothers that are less likely to follow recommendations.
Keywords
breastfeeding, childhood, maternal, obesity, overweight, solid food introduction, MATERNAL RECALL, RISK, VALIDITY, INFANCY, COHORT, TRIAL, LIFE, AGE

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Chicago
Papoutsou, Stalo, Savvas C Savva, Monica Hunsberger, Hannah Jilani, Nathalie Michels, Wolfgang Ahrens, Michael Tornaritis, et al. 2018. “Timing of Solid Food Introduction and Association with Later Childhood Overweight and Obesity : the IDEFICS Study.” Maternal and Child Nutrition 14 (1).
APA
Papoutsou, Stalo, Savva, S. C., Hunsberger, M., Jilani, H., Michels, N., Ahrens, W., Tornaritis, M., et al. (2018). Timing of solid food introduction and association with later childhood overweight and obesity : the IDEFICS study. MATERNAL AND CHILD NUTRITION, 14(1).
Vancouver
1.
Papoutsou S, Savva SC, Hunsberger M, Jilani H, Michels N, Ahrens W, et al. Timing of solid food introduction and association with later childhood overweight and obesity : the IDEFICS study. MATERNAL AND CHILD NUTRITION. 2018;14(1).
MLA
Papoutsou, Stalo, Savvas C Savva, Monica Hunsberger, et al. “Timing of Solid Food Introduction and Association with Later Childhood Overweight and Obesity : the IDEFICS Study.” MATERNAL AND CHILD NUTRITION 14.1 (2018): n. pag. Print.
@article{8542097,
  abstract     = {This study investigated associations between timing of solid food introduction and childhood obesity and explored maternal characteristics influencing early feeding practices. Cross-sectional data from children 2-9years (n=10,808; 50.5\% boys) residing in 8 European countries of the IDEFICS study (2007-2008) were included. Late solid food introduction (7months of age) was associated with an increased prevalence of later childhood overweight/obesity among exclusively breastfed children (OR [odds ratio]: 1.38, 95\% CI [confidence interval] [1.01, 1.88]). In contrast, early solid food introduction ({\textlangle}4months of age) was associated with lower prevalence of overweight/obesity among children that ceased exclusive breastfeeding earlier than 4 months (OR: 0.63, 95\% CI [0.47, 0.84]). Children that were introduced to solids right after 6months exclusive breastfeeding and continued to receive breastmilk (12months) were less likely to become overweight/obese (OR: 0.67, 95\% CI [0.51, 0.88]) compared to children that discontinued to receive breastmilk. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, country, birth weight, parental education level, parental body mass index, tobacco use in pregnancy, gestational weight gain, and gestational diabetes. Underweight mothers, overweight mothers, mothers who reported daily smoking during pregnancy, and low-educated mothers were less likely to follow recommendations on breastfeeding and timely solids introduction. Future studies should examine whether guidelines for solid food introduction timing have to distinguish between exclusively breastfed, formula fed, and too early exclusive breastfeeding-ceased infants. There is also need for more prospective studies; recall bias was an important current limitation. In conclusion, health professionals should emphasize benefits of breastfeeding and appropriate solid food introduction, especially to mothers that are less likely to follow recommendations.},
  articleno    = {e12471},
  author       = {Papoutsou, Stalo and Savva, Savvas C and Hunsberger, Monica and Jilani, Hannah and Michels, Nathalie and Ahrens, Wolfgang and Tornaritis, Michael and Veidebaum, Toomas and Moln{\'a}r, D{\'e}nes and Siani, Alfonso and Moreno, Luis A and Hadjigeorgiou, Charis},
  issn         = {1740-8695},
  journal      = {MATERNAL AND CHILD NUTRITION},
  keyword      = {breastfeeding,childhood,maternal,obesity,overweight,solid food introduction,MATERNAL RECALL,RISK,VALIDITY,INFANCY,COHORT,TRIAL,LIFE,AGE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {8},
  title        = {Timing of solid food introduction and association with later childhood overweight and obesity : the IDEFICS study},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mcn.12471},
  volume       = {14},
  year         = {2018},
}

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