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Initial validation of a virtual blood draw exposure paradigm for fear of blood and needles

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Abstract
Fear of blood, injections, and needles commonly prevents or delays individuals' receipt of health care, such as vaccines or blood draws. Innovative methods are needed to overcome these fears and reduce anxiety related to activities of this nature. The present study describes initial testing of an arm illusion paradigm that may prove useful during early phases of graded exposure for people with blood and needle fear. Seventy-four undergraduate students aged 18-29 years were tested. In line with study aims, results indicated that the virtual blood draw paradigm promoted strong perceptions of arm ownership and elicited significant changes in physiological indices (blood pressure, heart rate, electrodermal activity, respiratory rate) in response to key procedure elements (e.g., needle insertion). Further, bivariate correlations indicated that individual differences in self-reported blood and needle fear collected prior to the illusion paradigm were significantly associated with presyncopal symptoms reported following the procedure. In regression analyses, self-reported measures of blood and needle fear explained unique variance in presyncopal symptoms even after controlling for general state anxiety. These findings provide initial support for the virtual blood draw paradigm as a promising tool to help provide graded exposure to medical procedures involving needles and blood draw.
Keywords
RUBBER HAND ILLUSION, ANXIETY, PHOBIA, PREVALENCE, INJECTIONS, ADULTS, RETENTION, CHILDREN, OUTCOMES, INSULIN, Fear of blood, Fear of needles, Arm illusion, Virtual blood draw, Syncope

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Citation

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MLA
Trost, Z. et al. “Initial Validation of a Virtual Blood Draw Exposure Paradigm for Fear of Blood and Needles.” JOURNAL OF ANXIETY DISORDERS 51 (2017): 65–71. Print.
APA
Trost, Z., Jones, A., Guck, A., Vervoort, T., Kowalsky, J. M., & France, C. R. (2017). Initial validation of a virtual blood draw exposure paradigm for fear of blood and needles. JOURNAL OF ANXIETY DISORDERS, 51, 65–71.
Chicago author-date
Trost, Z., A. Jones, A. Guck, Tine Vervoort, J. M. Kowalsky, and C. R. France. 2017. “Initial Validation of a Virtual Blood Draw Exposure Paradigm for Fear of Blood and Needles.” Journal of Anxiety Disorders 51: 65–71.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Trost, Z., A. Jones, A. Guck, Tine Vervoort, J. M. Kowalsky, and C. R. France. 2017. “Initial Validation of a Virtual Blood Draw Exposure Paradigm for Fear of Blood and Needles.” Journal of Anxiety Disorders 51: 65–71.
Vancouver
1.
Trost Z, Jones A, Guck A, Vervoort T, Kowalsky JM, France CR. Initial validation of a virtual blood draw exposure paradigm for fear of blood and needles. JOURNAL OF ANXIETY DISORDERS. Oxford: Pergamon-elsevier Science Ltd; 2017;51:65–71.
IEEE
[1]
Z. Trost, A. Jones, A. Guck, T. Vervoort, J. M. Kowalsky, and C. R. France, “Initial validation of a virtual blood draw exposure paradigm for fear of blood and needles,” JOURNAL OF ANXIETY DISORDERS, vol. 51, pp. 65–71, 2017.
@article{8542075,
  abstract     = {Fear of blood, injections, and needles commonly prevents or delays individuals' receipt of health care, such as vaccines or blood draws. Innovative methods are needed to overcome these fears and reduce anxiety related to activities of this nature. The present study describes initial testing of an arm illusion paradigm that may prove useful during early phases of graded exposure for people with blood and needle fear. Seventy-four undergraduate students aged 18-29 years were tested. In line with study aims, results indicated that the virtual blood draw paradigm promoted strong perceptions of arm ownership and elicited significant changes in physiological indices (blood pressure, heart rate, electrodermal activity, respiratory rate) in response to key procedure elements (e.g., needle insertion). Further, bivariate correlations indicated that individual differences in self-reported blood and needle fear collected prior to the illusion paradigm were significantly associated with presyncopal symptoms reported following the procedure. In regression analyses, self-reported measures of blood and needle fear explained unique variance in presyncopal symptoms even after controlling for general state anxiety. These findings provide initial support for the virtual blood draw paradigm as a promising tool to help provide graded exposure to medical procedures involving needles and blood draw.},
  author       = {Trost, Z. and Jones, A. and Guck, A. and Vervoort, Tine and Kowalsky, J. M. and France, C. R.},
  issn         = {0887-6185},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF ANXIETY DISORDERS},
  keywords     = {RUBBER HAND ILLUSION,ANXIETY,PHOBIA,PREVALENCE,INJECTIONS,ADULTS,RETENTION,CHILDREN,OUTCOMES,INSULIN,Fear of blood,Fear of needles,Arm illusion,Virtual blood draw,Syncope},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {65--71},
  publisher    = {Pergamon-elsevier Science Ltd},
  title        = {Initial validation of a virtual blood draw exposure paradigm for fear of blood and needles},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2017.03.002},
  volume       = {51},
  year         = {2017},
}

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