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Efficacy of chemical disinfectants for the containment of the salamander chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans

Pascale Van Rooij (UGent) , Frank Pasmans (UGent) , Yanaïka Coen and An Martel (UGent)
(2017) PLOS ONE. 12(10).
Author
Organization
Abstract
The recently emerged chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) causes European salamander declines. Proper hygiene protocols including disinfection procedures are crucial to prevent disease transmission. Here, the efficacy of chemical disinfectants in killing Bsal was evaluated. At all tested conditions, Biocidal (R), Chloramine-T (R), Dettol medical (R), Disolol (R), ethanol, F10 (R), Hibiscrub (R), potassium permanganate, Safe4 (R), sodium hypochlorite, and Virkon S (R), were effective at killing Bsal. Concentrations of 5% sodium chloride or lower, 0.01% peracetic acid and 0.001-1% copper sulphate were inactive against Bsal. None of the conditions tested for hydrogen peroxide affected Bsal viability, while it did kill Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). For Bsal, enzymatic breakdown of hydrogen peroxide by catalases and specific morphological features (clustering of sporangia, development of new sporangia within the original sporangium), were identified as fungal factors altering susceptibility to several of the disinfectants tested. Based on the in vitro results we recommend 1% Virkon S (R), 4% sodium hypochlorite and 70% ethanol for disinfecting equipment in the field, lab or captive setting, with a minimal contact time of 5 minutes for 1% Virkon S (R) and 1 minute for the latter disinfectants. These conditions not only efficiently target Bsal, but also Bd and Ranavirus.
Keywords
SP-NOV, DENDROBATIDIS, AMPHIBIANS, CHYTRIDIOMYCOSIS, MECHANISMS, RESISTANCE, STRESS, CELLS, LIFE

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MLA
Van Rooij, Pascale et al. “Efficacy of Chemical Disinfectants for the Containment of the Salamander Chytrid Fungus Batrachochytrium Salamandrivorans.” PLOS ONE 12.10 (2017): n. pag. Print.
APA
Van Rooij, P., Pasmans, F., Coen, Y., & Martel, A. (2017). Efficacy of chemical disinfectants for the containment of the salamander chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans. PLOS ONE, 12(10).
Chicago author-date
Van Rooij, Pascale, Frank Pasmans, Yanaïka Coen, and An Martel. 2017. “Efficacy of Chemical Disinfectants for the Containment of the Salamander Chytrid Fungus Batrachochytrium Salamandrivorans.” Plos One 12 (10).
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Van Rooij, Pascale, Frank Pasmans, Yanaïka Coen, and An Martel. 2017. “Efficacy of Chemical Disinfectants for the Containment of the Salamander Chytrid Fungus Batrachochytrium Salamandrivorans.” Plos One 12 (10).
Vancouver
1.
Van Rooij P, Pasmans F, Coen Y, Martel A. Efficacy of chemical disinfectants for the containment of the salamander chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans. PLOS ONE. 2017;12(10).
IEEE
[1]
P. Van Rooij, F. Pasmans, Y. Coen, and A. Martel, “Efficacy of chemical disinfectants for the containment of the salamander chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans,” PLOS ONE, vol. 12, no. 10, 2017.
@article{8541901,
  abstract     = {The recently emerged chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) causes European salamander declines. Proper hygiene protocols including disinfection procedures are crucial to prevent disease transmission. Here, the efficacy of chemical disinfectants in killing Bsal was evaluated. At all tested conditions, Biocidal (R), Chloramine-T (R), Dettol medical (R), Disolol (R), ethanol, F10 (R), Hibiscrub (R), potassium permanganate, Safe4 (R), sodium hypochlorite, and Virkon S (R), were effective at killing Bsal. Concentrations of 5% sodium chloride or lower, 0.01% peracetic acid and 0.001-1% copper sulphate were inactive against Bsal. None of the conditions tested for hydrogen peroxide affected Bsal viability, while it did kill Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). For Bsal, enzymatic breakdown of hydrogen peroxide by catalases and specific morphological features (clustering of sporangia, development of new sporangia within the original sporangium), were identified as fungal factors altering susceptibility to several of the disinfectants tested. Based on the in vitro results we recommend 1% Virkon S (R), 4% sodium hypochlorite and 70% ethanol for disinfecting equipment in the field, lab or captive setting, with a minimal contact time of 5 minutes for 1% Virkon S (R) and 1 minute for the latter disinfectants. These conditions not only efficiently target Bsal, but also Bd and Ranavirus.},
  articleno    = {e0186269},
  author       = {Van Rooij, Pascale and Pasmans, Frank and Coen, Yanaïka and Martel, An},
  issn         = {1932-6203},
  journal      = {PLOS ONE},
  keywords     = {SP-NOV,DENDROBATIDIS,AMPHIBIANS,CHYTRIDIOMYCOSIS,MECHANISMS,RESISTANCE,STRESS,CELLS,LIFE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {10},
  pages        = {10},
  title        = {Efficacy of chemical disinfectants for the containment of the salamander chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0186269},
  volume       = {12},
  year         = {2017},
}

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