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The gingival biotype revisited: transparency of the periodontal probe through the gingival margin as a method to discriminate thin from thick gingiva

Tim De Rouck UGent, ARYAN EGHBALI UGent, Kris Collys, Hugo De Bruyn UGent and Jan Cosyn UGent (2009) JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PERIODONTOLOGY. 36(5). p.428-433
abstract
AIM: To detect groups of subjects in a sample of 100 periodontally healthy volunteers with different combinations of morphometric data related to central maxillary incisors and surrounding soft tissues. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Four clinical parameters were included in a cluster analysis: crown width/crown length ratio (CW/CL), gingival width (GW), papilla height (PH) and gingival thickness (GT). The latter was based on the transparency of the periodontal probe through the gingival margin while probing the buccal sulcus. Every first volunteer out of 10 was re-examined to evaluate intra-examiner repeatability for all variables. RESULTS: High agreement between duplicate recordings was found for all parameters, in particular for GT, pointing to 85% (kappa=0.70; p=0.002). The partitioning method identified three clusters with specific features. Cluster A1 (nine males, 28 females) displayed a slender tooth form (CW/CL=0.79), a GW of 4.92 mm, a PH of 4.29 mm and a thin gingiva (probe visible on one or both incisors in 100% of the subjects). Cluster A2 (29 males, five females) presented similar features (CW/CL=0.77; GW=5.2 mm; PH=4.54 mm), except for GT. These subjects showed a clear thick gingiva (probe concealed on both incisors in 97% of the subjects). The third group (cluster B: 12 males, 17 females) differed substantially from the other clusters in many parameters. These subjects showed a more quadratic tooth form (CW/CL=0.88), a broad zone of keratinized tissue (GW=5.84 mm), low papillae (PH=2.84 mm) and a thick gingiva (probe concealed on both incisors in 83% of the subjects). CONCLUSIONS: The present analysis, using a simple and reproducible method for GT assessment, confirmed the existence of gingival biotypes. A clear thin gingiva was found in about one-third of the sample in mainly female subjects with slender teeth, a narrow zone of keratinized tissue and a highly scalloped gingival margin corresponding to the features of the previously introduced "thin-scalloped biotype" (cluster A1). A clear thick gingiva was found in about two-thirds of the sample in mainly male subjects. About half of them showed quadratic teeth, a broad zone of keratinized tissue and a flat gingival margin corresponding to the features of the previously introduced "thick-flat biotype" (cluster B). The other half could not be classified as such. These subjects showed a clear thick gingiva with slender teeth, a narrow zone of keratinized tissue and a high gingival scallop (cluster A2).
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
year
type
journalArticle (original)
publication status
published
subject
keyword
periodontal phenotype, gingival thickness, periodontal disease, gingival biotype, CLINICAL-FEATURES, PHENOTYPES, MUCOSA, FORM
journal title
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PERIODONTOLOGY
J. Clin. Periodontol.
volume
36
issue
5
pages
428 - 433
Web of Science type
Article
Web of Science id
000265223400011
JCR category
DENTISTRY, ORAL SURGERY & MEDICINE
JCR impact factor
3.549 (2009)
JCR rank
1/64 (2009)
JCR quartile
1 (2009)
ISSN
0303-6979
DOI
10.1111/j.1600-051X.2009.01398.x
language
English
UGent publication?
yes
classification
A1
copyright statement
I have transferred the copyright for this publication to the publisher
id
854126
handle
http://hdl.handle.net/1854/LU-854126
date created
2010-02-05 17:30:12
date last changed
2012-11-07 09:31:20
@article{854126,
  abstract     = {AIM: To detect groups of subjects in a sample of 100 periodontally healthy volunteers with different combinations of morphometric data related to central maxillary incisors and surrounding soft tissues.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Four clinical parameters were included in a cluster analysis: crown width/crown length ratio (CW/CL), gingival width (GW), papilla height (PH) and gingival thickness (GT). The latter was based on the transparency of the periodontal probe through the gingival margin while probing the buccal sulcus. Every first volunteer out of 10 was re-examined to evaluate intra-examiner repeatability for all variables.
RESULTS: High agreement between duplicate recordings was found for all parameters, in particular for GT, pointing to 85\% (kappa=0.70; p=0.002). The partitioning method identified three clusters with specific features. Cluster A1 (nine males, 28 females) displayed a slender tooth form (CW/CL=0.79), a GW of 4.92 mm, a PH of 4.29 mm and a thin gingiva (probe visible on one or both incisors in 100\% of the subjects). Cluster A2 (29 males, five females) presented similar features (CW/CL=0.77; GW=5.2 mm; PH=4.54 mm), except for GT. These subjects showed a clear thick gingiva (probe concealed on both incisors in 97\% of the subjects). The third group (cluster B: 12 males, 17 females) differed substantially from the other clusters in many parameters. These subjects showed a more quadratic tooth form (CW/CL=0.88), a broad zone of keratinized tissue (GW=5.84 mm), low papillae (PH=2.84 mm) and a thick gingiva (probe concealed on both incisors in 83\% of the subjects).
CONCLUSIONS: The present analysis, using a simple and reproducible method for GT assessment, confirmed the existence of gingival biotypes. A clear thin gingiva was found in about one-third of the sample in mainly female subjects with slender teeth, a narrow zone of keratinized tissue and a highly scalloped gingival margin corresponding to the features of the previously introduced {\textacutedbl}thin-scalloped biotype{\textacutedbl} (cluster A1). A clear thick gingiva was found in about two-thirds of the sample in mainly male subjects. About half of them showed quadratic teeth, a broad zone of keratinized tissue and a flat gingival margin corresponding to the features of the previously introduced {\textacutedbl}thick-flat biotype{\textacutedbl} (cluster B). The other half could not be classified as such. These subjects showed a clear thick gingiva with slender teeth, a narrow zone of keratinized tissue and a high gingival scallop (cluster A2).},
  author       = {De Rouck, Tim and EGHBALI, ARYAN and Collys, Kris and De Bruyn, Hugo and Cosyn, Jan},
  issn         = {0303-6979},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PERIODONTOLOGY},
  keyword      = {periodontal phenotype,gingival thickness,periodontal disease,gingival biotype,CLINICAL-FEATURES,PHENOTYPES,MUCOSA,FORM},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {5},
  pages        = {428--433},
  title        = {The gingival biotype revisited: transparency of the periodontal probe through the gingival margin as a method to discriminate thin from thick gingiva},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-051X.2009.01398.x},
  volume       = {36},
  year         = {2009},
}

Chicago
De Rouck, Tim, ARYAN EGHBALI, Kris Collys, Hugo De Bruyn, and Jan Cosyn. 2009. “The Gingival Biotype Revisited: Transparency of the Periodontal Probe Through the Gingival Margin as a Method to Discriminate Thin from Thick Gingiva.” Journal of Clinical Periodontology 36 (5): 428–433.
APA
De Rouck, T., EGHBALI, A., Collys, K., De Bruyn, H., & Cosyn, J. (2009). The gingival biotype revisited: transparency of the periodontal probe through the gingival margin as a method to discriminate thin from thick gingiva. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PERIODONTOLOGY, 36(5), 428–433.
Vancouver
1.
De Rouck T, EGHBALI A, Collys K, De Bruyn H, Cosyn J. The gingival biotype revisited: transparency of the periodontal probe through the gingival margin as a method to discriminate thin from thick gingiva. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PERIODONTOLOGY. 2009;36(5):428–33.
MLA
De Rouck, Tim, ARYAN EGHBALI, Kris Collys, et al. “The Gingival Biotype Revisited: Transparency of the Periodontal Probe Through the Gingival Margin as a Method to Discriminate Thin from Thick Gingiva.” JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PERIODONTOLOGY 36.5 (2009): 428–433. Print.