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Genome of wild olive and the evolution of oil biosynthesis

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Bioinformatics: from nucleotids to networks (N2N)
Abstract
Here we present the genome sequence and annotation of the wild olive tree (Olea europaea var. sylvestris), called oleaster, which is considered an ancestor of cultivated olive trees. More than 50,000 protein-coding genes were predicted, a majority of which could be anchored to 23 pseudochromosomes obtained through a newly constructed genetic map. The oleaster genome contains signatures of two Oleaceae lineage-specific paleopolyploidy events, dated at similar to 28 and similar to 59 Mya. These events contributed to the expansion and neo-functionalization of genes and gene families that play important roles in oil biosynthesis. The functional divergence of oil biosynthesis pathway genes, such as FAD2, SACPD, EAR, and ACPTE, following duplication, has been responsible for the differential accumulation of oleic and linoleic acids produced in olive compared with sesame, a closely related oil crop. Duplicated oleaster FAD2 genes are regulated by an siRNA derived from a transposable element-rich region, leading to suppressed levels of FAD2 gene expression. Additionally, neofunctionalization of members of the SACPD gene family has led to increased expression of SACPD2,3, 5, and 7, consequently resulting in an increased desaturation of steric acid. Taken together, decreased FAD2 expression and increased SACPD expression likely explain the accumulation of exceptionally high levels of oleic acid in olive. The oleaster genome thus provides important insights into the evolution of oil biosynthesis and will be a valuable resource for oil crop genomics.
Keywords
DNA-SEQUENCES, LINKAGE MAP, DIVERSIFICATION, IDENTIFICATION, DIVERSITY, AGE, oil crop, whole-genome duplication, siRNA regulation, fatty-acid, biosynthesis, polyunsaturated fatty-acid pathway

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Citation

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Chicago
Unver, Turgay, Zhangyan Wu, Lieven Sterck, Mine Turktas, Rolf Lohaus, Zhen Li, Ming Yang, et al. 2017. “Genome of Wild Olive and the Evolution of Oil Biosynthesis.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 114 (44): E9413–E9422.
APA
Unver, T., Wu, Z., Sterck, L., Turktas, M., Lohaus, R., Li, Z., Yang, M., et al. (2017). Genome of wild olive and the evolution of oil biosynthesis. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 114(44), E9413–E9422.
Vancouver
1.
Unver T, Wu Z, Sterck L, Turktas M, Lohaus R, Li Z, et al. Genome of wild olive and the evolution of oil biosynthesis. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 2017;114(44):E9413–E9422.
MLA
Unver, Turgay, Zhangyan Wu, Lieven Sterck, et al. “Genome of Wild Olive and the Evolution of Oil Biosynthesis.” PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 114.44 (2017): E9413–E9422. Print.
@article{8540293,
  abstract     = {Here we present the genome sequence and annotation of the wild olive tree (Olea europaea var. sylvestris), called oleaster, which is considered an ancestor of cultivated olive trees. More than 50,000 protein-coding genes were predicted, a majority of which could be anchored to 23 pseudochromosomes obtained through a newly constructed genetic map. The oleaster genome contains signatures of two Oleaceae lineage-specific paleopolyploidy events, dated at similar to 28 and similar to 59 Mya. These events contributed to the expansion and neo-functionalization of genes and gene families that play important roles in oil biosynthesis. The functional divergence of oil biosynthesis pathway genes, such as FAD2, SACPD, EAR, and ACPTE, following duplication, has been responsible for the differential accumulation of oleic and linoleic acids produced in olive compared with sesame, a closely related oil crop. Duplicated oleaster FAD2 genes are regulated by an siRNA derived from a transposable element-rich region, leading to suppressed levels of FAD2 gene expression. Additionally, neofunctionalization of members of the SACPD gene family has led to increased expression of SACPD2,3, 5, and 7, consequently resulting in an increased desaturation of steric acid. Taken together, decreased FAD2 expression and increased SACPD expression likely explain the accumulation of exceptionally high levels of oleic acid in olive. The oleaster genome thus provides important insights into the evolution of oil biosynthesis and will be a valuable resource for oil crop genomics.},
  author       = {Unver, Turgay and Wu, Zhangyan and Sterck, Lieven and Turktas, Mine and Lohaus, Rolf and Li, Zhen and Yang, Ming and He, Lijuan and Deng, Tianquan and Javier Escalante, Francisco and Llorens, Carlos and Roig, Francisco J and Parmaksiz, Iskender and Dundar, Ekrem and Xie, Fuliang and Zhang, Baohong and lpek, Arif and Uranbey, Serkan and Erayman, Mustafa and llhan, Emre and Badad, Oussama and Ghazal, Hassan and Lightfoot, David A and Kasarla, Pavan and Colantonio, Vincent and Tombuloglu, Huseyin and Hernandez, Pilar and Mete, Nurengin and Cetin, Oznur and Van Montagu, Marc and Yang, Huanming and Gao, Qiang and Dorado, Gabriel and Van de Peer, Yves},
  issn         = {0027-8424},
  journal      = {PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA},
  keyword      = {DNA-SEQUENCES,LINKAGE MAP,DIVERSIFICATION,IDENTIFICATION,DIVERSITY,AGE,oil crop,whole-genome duplication,siRNA regulation,fatty-acid,biosynthesis,polyunsaturated fatty-acid pathway},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {44},
  pages        = {E9413--E9422},
  title        = {Genome of wild olive and the evolution of oil biosynthesis},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1708621114},
  volume       = {114},
  year         = {2017},
}

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