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Silencing CAFFEOYL SHIKIMATE ESTERASE affects lignification and improves saccharification in poplar

(2017) PLANT PHYSIOLOGY. 175(3). p.1040-1057
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Biotechnology for a sustainable economy (Bio-Economy)
Abstract
Caffeoyl shikimate esterase (CSE) was recently shown to play an essential role in lignin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and later in Medicago truncatula. However, the general function of this enzyme was recently questioned by the apparent lack of CSE activity in lignifying tissues of different plant species. Here, we show that down-regulation of CSE in hybrid poplar (Populus tremula x Populus alba) resulted in up to 25% reduced lignin deposition, increased levels of p-hydroxyphenyl units in the lignin polymer, and a relatively higher cellulose content. The transgenic trees were morphologically indistinguishable from the wild type. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based phenolic profiling revealed a reduced abundance of several oligolignols containing guaiacyl and syringyl units and their corresponding hydroxycinnamaldehyde units, in agreement with the reduced flux toward coniferyl and sinapyl alcohol. These trees accumulated the CSE substrate caffeoyl shikimate along with other compounds belonging to the metabolic classes of benzenoids and hydroxycinnamates. Furthermore, the reduced lignin amount combined with the relative increase in cellulose content in the CSE down-regulated lines resulted in up to 62% more glucose released per plant upon limited saccharification when no pretreatment was applied and by up to 86% and 91% when acid and alkaline pretreatments were used. Our results show that CSE is not only important for the lignification process in poplar but is also a promising target for the development of improved lignocellulosic biomass crops for sugar platform biorefineries.
Keywords
O-METHYLTRANSFERASE ACTIVITY, STATE 2D NMR, LIGNIN BIOSYNTHESIS, DOWN-REGULATION, MONOLIGNOL BIOSYNTHESIS, ARABIDOPSIS-THALIANA, ENZYMATIC DIGESTIBILITY, POPULUS-TRICHOCARPA, TRANSGENIC POPLARS, METABOLIC FLUX

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Citation

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Chicago
Saleme de Lyra Soriano, Marina, Igor Cesarino, Livia Vargas dos Santos Ferreira, Hoon Kim, Ruben Vanholme, Geert Goeminne, Rebecca Van Acker, et al. 2017. “Silencing CAFFEOYL SHIKIMATE ESTERASE Affects Lignification and Improves Saccharification in Poplar.” Plant Physiology 175 (3): 1040–1057.
APA
Saleme de Lyra Soriano, M., Cesarino, I., Vargas dos Santos Ferreira, L., Kim, H., Vanholme, R., Goeminne, G., Van Acker, R., et al. (2017). Silencing CAFFEOYL SHIKIMATE ESTERASE affects lignification and improves saccharification in poplar. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY, 175(3), 1040–1057.
Vancouver
1.
Saleme de Lyra Soriano M, Cesarino I, Vargas dos Santos Ferreira L, Kim H, Vanholme R, Goeminne G, et al. Silencing CAFFEOYL SHIKIMATE ESTERASE affects lignification and improves saccharification in poplar. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY. 2017;175(3):1040–57.
MLA
Saleme de Lyra Soriano, Marina, Igor Cesarino, Livia Vargas dos Santos Ferreira, et al. “Silencing CAFFEOYL SHIKIMATE ESTERASE Affects Lignification and Improves Saccharification in Poplar.” PLANT PHYSIOLOGY 175.3 (2017): 1040–1057. Print.
@article{8540274,
  abstract     = {Caffeoyl shikimate esterase (CSE) was recently shown to play an essential role in lignin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and later in Medicago truncatula. However, the general function of this enzyme was recently questioned by the apparent lack of CSE activity in lignifying tissues of different plant species. Here, we show that down-regulation of CSE in hybrid poplar (Populus tremula x Populus alba) resulted in up to 25\% reduced lignin deposition, increased levels of p-hydroxyphenyl units in the lignin polymer, and a relatively higher cellulose content. The transgenic trees were morphologically indistinguishable from the wild type. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based phenolic profiling revealed a reduced abundance of several oligolignols containing guaiacyl and syringyl units and their corresponding hydroxycinnamaldehyde units, in agreement with the reduced flux toward coniferyl and sinapyl alcohol. These trees accumulated the CSE substrate caffeoyl shikimate along with other compounds belonging to the metabolic classes of benzenoids and hydroxycinnamates. Furthermore, the reduced lignin amount combined with the relative increase in cellulose content in the CSE down-regulated lines resulted in up to 62\% more glucose released per plant upon limited saccharification when no pretreatment was applied and by up to 86\% and 91\% when acid and alkaline pretreatments were used. Our results show that CSE is not only important for the lignification process in poplar but is also a promising target for the development of improved lignocellulosic biomass crops for sugar platform biorefineries.},
  author       = {Saleme de Lyra Soriano, Marina and Cesarino, Igor and Vargas dos Santos Ferreira, Livia and Kim, Hoon and Vanholme, Ruben and Goeminne, Geert and Van Acker, Rebecca and Campos De Assis Fonseca, Fernando and Pallidis, Andreas and Voorend, Wannes and Nicomedes, Jos{\'e} Junior and Padmakshan, Dharshana and Van Doorsselaere, Jan and Ralph, John and Boerjan, Wout},
  issn         = {0032-0889},
  journal      = {PLANT PHYSIOLOGY},
  keyword      = {O-METHYLTRANSFERASE ACTIVITY,STATE 2D NMR,LIGNIN BIOSYNTHESIS,DOWN-REGULATION,MONOLIGNOL BIOSYNTHESIS,ARABIDOPSIS-THALIANA,ENZYMATIC DIGESTIBILITY,POPULUS-TRICHOCARPA,TRANSGENIC POPLARS,METABOLIC FLUX},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {1040--1057},
  title        = {Silencing CAFFEOYL SHIKIMATE ESTERASE affects lignification and improves saccharification in poplar},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.17.00920},
  volume       = {175},
  year         = {2017},
}

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