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Inactivation of viruses and bacteria on strawberries using a levulinic acid plus sodium dodecyl sulfate based sanitizer, taking sensorial and chemical food safety aspects into account

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Abstract
The efficacy of levulinic acid (LVA) in combination with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in removal of foodbome viruses, enteric bacterial pathogens and their surrogates on fresh strawberries was investigated. Inoculated strawberries were treated with potable water, sodium hypochlorite solution (50 ppm), 0.5% LVA plus 0.5% SDS solution, and 5% LVA plus 2% SDS solution respectively for 2 min, followed by spray-rinsing with potable water. Water washing removed at least 1.0-log of the tested viral and bacterial strains from the strawberries' surfaces. The 50 ppm chlorine wash induced 3.4, 1.5 and 2.1-log reductions for hepatitis A virus (HAV), murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1) and MS2 bacteriophage, respectively. In comparison, the tested bacterial strains showed uniform reductions around 1.6-log CFU/ml. The 0.5% LVA plus 0.5% SDS wash induced 2.7, 1.4 and 2.4-log reductions for HAV, MNV-1 and MS2, which were comparable with the reductions induced by chlorine (P > 0.05). For bacteria, over 2.0-log reductions were obtained for Enterococcus faeciurn, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella, while Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and Escherichia coli P1 showed reductions of 1.9 and 1.8-log CFU/ml. Higher concentration of LVA plus SDS showed no significantly higher reductions (P > 0.05). Sensory tests of washed strawberries and chemical residue analysis of LVA on strawberries after washing were also performed. In conclusion, this study demonstrates good performance of 0.5% LVA plus 0.5% SDS to reduce the levels of enteric pathogens if present on strawberries without altering taste and introducing chemical safety issues.
Keywords
Human norovirus, Hepatitis A virus, Salmonella, E. colt, Inactivation, Decontamination, Sanitizer, Chemical residue, Fruits, ESCHERICHIA-COLI O157H7, HUMAN NOROVIRUS, MURINE NOROVIRUS, FRESH PRODUCE, FOODBORNE VIRUSES, SALMONELLA, EFFICACY, SURROGATE, STORAGE, COMBINATIONS

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Chicago
Zhou, Zijin, Sophie Zuber, Frédérique Cantergiani, Sophie Butot, Dan Li, Thomas Stroheker, Frank Devlieghere, Anthony Lima, Umberto Piantini, and Mieke Uyttendaele. 2017. “Inactivation of Viruses and Bacteria on Strawberries Using a Levulinic Acid Plus Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Based Sanitizer, Taking Sensorial and Chemical Food Safety Aspects into Account.” International Journal of Food Microbiology 257: 176–182.
APA
Zhou, Zijin, Zuber, S., Cantergiani, F., Butot, S., Li, D., Stroheker, T., Devlieghere, F., et al. (2017). Inactivation of viruses and bacteria on strawberries using a levulinic acid plus sodium dodecyl sulfate based sanitizer, taking sensorial and chemical food safety aspects into account. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD MICROBIOLOGY, 257, 176–182.
Vancouver
1.
Zhou Z, Zuber S, Cantergiani F, Butot S, Li D, Stroheker T, et al. Inactivation of viruses and bacteria on strawberries using a levulinic acid plus sodium dodecyl sulfate based sanitizer, taking sensorial and chemical food safety aspects into account. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD MICROBIOLOGY. 2017;257:176–82.
MLA
Zhou, Zijin, Sophie Zuber, Frédérique Cantergiani, et al. “Inactivation of Viruses and Bacteria on Strawberries Using a Levulinic Acid Plus Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Based Sanitizer, Taking Sensorial and Chemical Food Safety Aspects into Account.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD MICROBIOLOGY 257 (2017): 176–182. Print.
@article{8540235,
  abstract     = {The efficacy of levulinic acid (LVA) in combination with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in removal of foodbome viruses, enteric bacterial pathogens and their surrogates on fresh strawberries was investigated. Inoculated strawberries were treated with potable water, sodium hypochlorite solution (50 ppm), 0.5\% LVA plus 0.5\% SDS solution, and 5\% LVA plus 2\% SDS solution respectively for 2 min, followed by spray-rinsing with potable water. Water washing removed at least 1.0-log of the tested viral and bacterial strains from the strawberries' surfaces. The 50 ppm chlorine wash induced 3.4, 1.5 and 2.1-log reductions for hepatitis A virus (HAV), murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1) and MS2 bacteriophage, respectively. In comparison, the tested bacterial strains showed uniform reductions around 1.6-log CFU/ml. The 0.5\% LVA plus 0.5\% SDS wash induced 2.7, 1.4 and 2.4-log reductions for HAV, MNV-1 and MS2, which were comparable with the reductions induced by chlorine (P {\textrangle} 0.05). For bacteria, over 2.0-log reductions were obtained for Enterococcus faeciurn, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella, while Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and Escherichia coli P1 showed reductions of 1.9 and 1.8-log CFU/ml. Higher concentration of LVA plus SDS showed no significantly higher reductions (P {\textrangle} 0.05). Sensory tests of washed strawberries and chemical residue analysis of LVA on strawberries after washing were also performed. In conclusion, this study demonstrates good performance of 0.5\% LVA plus 0.5\% SDS to reduce the levels of enteric pathogens if present on strawberries without altering taste and introducing chemical safety issues.},
  author       = {Zhou, Zijin and Zuber, Sophie and Cantergiani, Fr{\'e}d{\'e}rique and Butot, Sophie and Li, Dan and Stroheker, Thomas and Devlieghere, Frank and Lima, Anthony and Piantini, Umberto and Uyttendaele, Mieke},
  issn         = {0168-1605},
  journal      = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD MICROBIOLOGY},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {176--182},
  title        = {Inactivation of viruses and bacteria on strawberries using a levulinic acid plus sodium dodecyl sulfate based sanitizer, taking sensorial and chemical food safety aspects into account},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.10164/j.ijfoodmicro.2017.06.023},
  volume       = {257},
  year         = {2017},
}

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