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Looking through tinted glasses : depression and social anxiety are related to both interpretation biases and inflexible negative interpretations

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Abstract
Interpretation bias is often theorized to play a critical role in depression and social anxiety. To date, it remains unknown how interpretation bias exerts its toxic effects. Interpretation inflexibility may be an important determinant of how distorted interpretations affect emotional well-being. This study investigated interpretation bias and inflexibility in relation to depression severity and social anxiety. Participants (N = 212) completed a novel cognitive task that simultaneously measured bias and inflexibility in the interpretation of unfolding ambiguous situations. Depression severity was associated with increased negative and decreased positive interpretation biases. Social anxiety was associated with increased negative interpretation bias. Critically, both symptom types were related to reduced revision of negative interpretations by disconfirmatory positive information. These findings suggest that individuals with more severe depression or social anxiety make more biased and inflexible interpretations. Future work examining cognitive risk for depression and anxiety could benefit from examining both these factors.
Keywords
DISCONFIRMATORY EVIDENCE, WORKING-MEMORY, COGNITIVE BIAS, METAANALYSIS, VULNERABILITY, INTEGRATION, DELUSIONS, MODEL, interpretation inflexibility, interpretation bias, depression, social anxiety, open data

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MLA
Everaert, Jonas, et al. “Looking through Tinted Glasses : Depression and Social Anxiety Are Related to Both Interpretation Biases and Inflexible Negative Interpretations.” CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE, vol. 6, no. 4, 2018, pp. 517–28, doi:10.1177/2167702617747968.
APA
Everaert, J., Bronstein, M. V., Cannon, T. D., & Joormann, J. (2018). Looking through tinted glasses : depression and social anxiety are related to both interpretation biases and inflexible negative interpretations. CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE, 6(4), 517–528. https://doi.org/10.1177/2167702617747968
Chicago author-date
Everaert, Jonas, Michael V. Bronstein, Tyrone D. Cannon, and Jutta Joormann. 2018. “Looking through Tinted Glasses : Depression and Social Anxiety Are Related to Both Interpretation Biases and Inflexible Negative Interpretations.” CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE 6 (4): 517–28. https://doi.org/10.1177/2167702617747968.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Everaert, Jonas, Michael V. Bronstein, Tyrone D. Cannon, and Jutta Joormann. 2018. “Looking through Tinted Glasses : Depression and Social Anxiety Are Related to Both Interpretation Biases and Inflexible Negative Interpretations.” CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE 6 (4): 517–528. doi:10.1177/2167702617747968.
Vancouver
1.
Everaert J, Bronstein MV, Cannon TD, Joormann J. Looking through tinted glasses : depression and social anxiety are related to both interpretation biases and inflexible negative interpretations. CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE. 2018;6(4):517–28.
IEEE
[1]
J. Everaert, M. V. Bronstein, T. D. Cannon, and J. Joormann, “Looking through tinted glasses : depression and social anxiety are related to both interpretation biases and inflexible negative interpretations,” CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 517–528, 2018.
@article{8539871,
  abstract     = {Interpretation bias is often theorized to play a critical role in depression and social anxiety. To date, it remains unknown how interpretation bias exerts its toxic effects. Interpretation inflexibility may be an important determinant of how distorted interpretations affect emotional well-being. This study investigated interpretation bias and inflexibility in relation to depression severity and social anxiety. Participants (N = 212) completed a novel cognitive task that simultaneously measured bias and inflexibility in the interpretation of unfolding ambiguous situations. Depression severity was associated with increased negative and decreased positive interpretation biases. Social anxiety was associated with increased negative interpretation bias. Critically, both symptom types were related to reduced revision of negative interpretations by disconfirmatory positive information. These findings suggest that individuals with more severe depression or social anxiety make more biased and inflexible interpretations. Future work examining cognitive risk for depression and anxiety could benefit from examining both these factors.},
  author       = {Everaert, Jonas and Bronstein, Michael V. and Cannon, Tyrone D. and Joormann, Jutta},
  issn         = {2167-7026},
  journal      = {CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE},
  keywords     = {DISCONFIRMATORY EVIDENCE,WORKING-MEMORY,COGNITIVE BIAS,METAANALYSIS,VULNERABILITY,INTEGRATION,DELUSIONS,MODEL,interpretation inflexibility,interpretation bias,depression,social anxiety,open data},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {517--528},
  title        = {Looking through tinted glasses : depression and social anxiety are related to both interpretation biases and inflexible negative interpretations},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2167702617747968},
  volume       = {6},
  year         = {2018},
}

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