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Adherence to the 2015 Dutch dietary guidelines and risk of non-communicable diseases and mortality in the Rotterdam study

(2017) EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY. 32(11). p.993-1005
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Abstract
We aimed to evaluate the criterion validity of the 2015 food-based Dutch dietary guidelines, which were formulated based on evidence on the relation between diet and major chronic diseases. We studied 9701 participants of the Rotterdam Study, a population-based prospective cohort in individuals aged 45 years and over [median 64.1 years (95%-range 49.0-82.8)]. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline with a food-frequency questionnaire. For all participants, we examined adherence (yes/no) to fourteen items of the guidelines: vegetables (>= 200 g/day), fruit (>= 200 g/day), whole-grains (>= 90 g/day), legumes (>= 135 g/week), nuts (>= 15 g/day), dairy (>= 350 g/day), fish (>= 100 g/week), tea (>= 450 mL/day), ratio whole-grains:total grains (>= 50%), ratio unsaturated fats and oils: total fats (>= 50%), red and processed meat (<300 g/week), sugar-containing beverages (<= 150 mL/day), alcohol (<= 10 g/day) and salt (<= 6 g/day). Total adherence was calculated as sum-score of the adherence to the individual items (0-14). Information on disease incidence and allcause mortality during a median follow-up period of 13.5 years (range 0-27.0) was obtained from data collected at our research center and from medical records. Using Cox proportional-hazards models adjusted for confounders, we observed every additional component adhered to was associated with a 3% lower mortality risk (HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.95; 0.98), lower risk of stroke (HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.92; 0.99), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.91; 0.98), colorectal cancer (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.84; 0.96), and depression (HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.95; 0.999), but not with incidence of coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, heart failure, lung cancer, breast cancer, or dementia. These associations were not driven by any of the individual dietary components. To conclude, adherence to the Dutch dietary guidelines was associated with a lower mortality risk and a lower risk of developing some but not all of the chronic diseases on which the guidelines were based.
Keywords
RESEARCH FUND/AMERICAN INSTITUTE, OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY-DISEASE, HEALTHY, EATING INDEX, PROSPECTIVE COHORT, CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE, CANCER, PREVENTION, QUESTIONNAIRE, DEMENTIA, FOOD, RECOMMENDATIONS, Diet quality, Validation, Cardiovascular disease, Cancer, Neurological, diseases, Cohort study

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Chicago
Voortman, Trudy, Jessica C Kiefte-de Jong, M Arfan Ikram, Bruno H Stricker, Frank JA van Rooij, Lies Lahousse, Henning Tiemeier, Guy Brusselle, Oscar H Franco, and Josje D Schoufour. 2017. “Adherence to the 2015 Dutch Dietary Guidelines and Risk of Non-communicable Diseases and Mortality in the Rotterdam Study.” European Journal of Epidemiology 32 (11): 993–1005.
APA
Voortman, T., Kiefte-de Jong, J. C., Ikram, M. A., Stricker, B. H., van Rooij, F. J., Lahousse, L., Tiemeier, H., et al. (2017). Adherence to the 2015 Dutch dietary guidelines and risk of non-communicable diseases and mortality in the Rotterdam study. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY, 32(11), 993–1005.
Vancouver
1.
Voortman T, Kiefte-de Jong JC, Ikram MA, Stricker BH, van Rooij FJ, Lahousse L, et al. Adherence to the 2015 Dutch dietary guidelines and risk of non-communicable diseases and mortality in the Rotterdam study. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY. 2017;32(11):993–1005.
MLA
Voortman, Trudy et al. “Adherence to the 2015 Dutch Dietary Guidelines and Risk of Non-communicable Diseases and Mortality in the Rotterdam Study.” EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY 32.11 (2017): 993–1005. Print.
@article{8539226,
  abstract     = {We aimed to evaluate the criterion validity of the 2015 food-based Dutch dietary guidelines, which were formulated based on evidence on the relation between diet and major chronic diseases. We studied 9701 participants of the Rotterdam Study, a population-based prospective cohort in individuals aged 45 years and over [median 64.1 years (95%-range 49.0-82.8)]. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline with a food-frequency questionnaire. For all participants, we examined adherence (yes/no) to fourteen items of the guidelines: vegetables (>= 200 g/day), fruit (>= 200 g/day), whole-grains (>= 90 g/day), legumes (>= 135 g/week), nuts (>= 15 g/day), dairy (>= 350 g/day), fish (>= 100 g/week), tea (>= 450 mL/day), ratio whole-grains:total grains (>= 50%), ratio unsaturated fats and oils: total fats (>= 50%), red and processed meat (<300 g/week), sugar-containing beverages (<= 150 mL/day), alcohol (<= 10 g/day) and salt (<= 6 g/day). Total adherence was calculated as sum-score of the adherence to the individual items (0-14). Information on disease incidence and allcause mortality during a median follow-up period of 13.5 years (range 0-27.0) was obtained from data collected at our research center and from medical records. Using Cox proportional-hazards models adjusted for confounders, we observed every additional component adhered to was associated with a 3% lower mortality risk (HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.95; 0.98), lower risk of stroke (HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.92; 0.99), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.91; 0.98), colorectal cancer (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.84; 0.96), and depression (HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.95; 0.999), but not with incidence of coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, heart failure, lung cancer, breast cancer, or dementia. These associations were not driven by any of the individual dietary components. To conclude, adherence to the Dutch dietary guidelines was associated with a lower mortality risk and a lower risk of developing some but not all of the chronic diseases on which the guidelines were based.},
  author       = {Voortman, Trudy and Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C and Ikram, M Arfan and Stricker, Bruno H and van Rooij, Frank JA and Lahousse, Lies and Tiemeier, Henning and Brusselle, Guy and Franco, Oscar H and Schoufour, Josje D},
  issn         = {0393-2990},
  journal      = {EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY},
  keywords     = {RESEARCH FUND/AMERICAN INSTITUTE,OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY-DISEASE,HEALTHY,EATING INDEX,PROSPECTIVE COHORT,CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE,CANCER,PREVENTION,QUESTIONNAIRE,DEMENTIA,FOOD,RECOMMENDATIONS,Diet quality,Validation,Cardiovascular disease,Cancer,Neurological,diseases,Cohort study},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {11},
  pages        = {993--1005},
  title        = {Adherence to the 2015 Dutch dietary guidelines and risk of non-communicable diseases and mortality in the Rotterdam study},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10654-017-0295-2},
  volume       = {32},
  year         = {2017},
}

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