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GH11 xylanase increases prebiotic oligosaccharides from wheat bran favouring butyrate-producing bacteria in vitro

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Abstract
Alternative solutions to optimise intestinal health in monogastric animals have become essential since the ban of antimicrobials in animal feed. In this study, the prebiotic potential of a commercial feed GH11 xylanase was investigated in vitro. Enzymatic degradation of arabinoxylan (AX), the substrate present in wheat bran cell walls, was visualised using immuno-microscopy techniques. The arabinoxylooligosaccharides (AXOS) generated by the enzyme were analysed by non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) analysis, mass spectrometry (MS) and carbohydrate chromatography to investigate how AXOS glycan complexity and enzyme dosage may affect fermentation patterns in a wheat-based diet. Using a 10 mg EP/kg dosage of xylanase, AXOS with an average degree of polymerisation (avDP) of 10 were generated, while using a higher enzyme dosage (50 mg EP/kg) avDP shifted to 4-8. For both enzyme concentrations, AXOS had an arabinose/xylose ratio of similar to 0.4. Wheat bran incubated without or with xylanase was simultaneously fermented by broiler cecal bacteria in vitro and short chain fatty acid production was monitored. A small (but significant) increase in butyrate production by addition of xylanase was shown to be dose-dependent and increased by 2 mM (P < 0.05) compared to control by adding 50 mg EP/kg enzyme dosage. Butyrate-producing bacterial genera Faecalibacterium and Intestinimonas were significantly increased in fermentation reactions of wheat bran with GH11 xylanase addition while Bacteroidetes levels were significantly lowered. Supernatants from fermentation reactions of wheat bran incubated with and without xylanase and cecal microbiota were tested in an intestinal epithelial layer permeability assay using Caco-2 cells stimulated with LPS. The xylanase addition to the bran incubated with cecal content of broilers reversed LPS-induced epithelial layer resistance losses. The GH11 xylanase was able to solubilise and degrade wheat bran AX to yield low avDP AXOS that can be fermented by cecal microbiota, resulting in microbiota shifts and beneficial effects on transepithelial resistance in vitro.
Keywords
CHAIN FATTY-ACIDS, ARABINOXYLAN-OLIGOSACCHARIDES, ENERGY-METABOLISM, BROILER-CHICKENS, MICROBIOTA, PERFORMANCE, ARABINOXYLOOLIGOSACCHARIDES, SUPPLEMENTATION, HEALTH, FERMENTATION, Xylanase, Wheat bran, Prebiotic, SCFA, Microbiota

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Chicago
Ravn, Jonas Laukkonen, Julian Charlotte Thogersen, Jens Eklof, Dan Pettersson, Richard Ducatelle, Filip Van Immerseel, and Ninfa Rangel Pedersen. 2017. “GH11 Xylanase Increases Prebiotic Oligosaccharides from Wheat Bran Favouring Butyrate-producing Bacteria in Vitro.” Animal Feed Science and Technology 226: 113–123.
APA
Ravn, Jonas Laukkonen, Thogersen, J. C., Eklof, J., Pettersson, D., Ducatelle, R., Van Immerseel, F., & Pedersen, N. R. (2017). GH11 xylanase increases prebiotic oligosaccharides from wheat bran favouring butyrate-producing bacteria in vitro. ANIMAL FEED SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, 226, 113–123.
Vancouver
1.
Ravn JL, Thogersen JC, Eklof J, Pettersson D, Ducatelle R, Van Immerseel F, et al. GH11 xylanase increases prebiotic oligosaccharides from wheat bran favouring butyrate-producing bacteria in vitro. ANIMAL FEED SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. 2017;226:113–23.
MLA
Ravn, Jonas Laukkonen, Julian Charlotte Thogersen, Jens Eklof, et al. “GH11 Xylanase Increases Prebiotic Oligosaccharides from Wheat Bran Favouring Butyrate-producing Bacteria in Vitro.” ANIMAL FEED SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 226 (2017): 113–123. Print.
@article{8539209,
  abstract     = {Alternative solutions to optimise intestinal health in monogastric animals have become essential since the ban of antimicrobials in animal feed. In this study, the prebiotic potential of a commercial feed GH11 xylanase was investigated in vitro. Enzymatic degradation of arabinoxylan (AX), the substrate present in wheat bran cell walls, was visualised using immuno-microscopy techniques. The arabinoxylooligosaccharides (AXOS) generated by the enzyme were analysed by non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) analysis, mass spectrometry (MS) and carbohydrate chromatography to investigate how AXOS glycan complexity and enzyme dosage may affect fermentation patterns in a wheat-based diet. Using a 10 mg EP/kg dosage of xylanase, AXOS with an average degree of polymerisation (avDP) of 10 were generated, while using a higher enzyme dosage (50 mg EP/kg) avDP shifted to 4-8. For both enzyme concentrations, AXOS had an arabinose/xylose ratio of similar to 0.4. Wheat bran incubated without or with xylanase was simultaneously fermented by broiler cecal bacteria in vitro and short chain fatty acid production was monitored. A small (but significant) increase in butyrate production by addition of xylanase was shown to be dose-dependent and increased by 2 mM (P {\textlangle} 0.05) compared to control by adding 50 mg EP/kg enzyme dosage. Butyrate-producing bacterial genera Faecalibacterium and Intestinimonas were significantly increased in fermentation reactions of wheat bran with GH11 xylanase addition while Bacteroidetes levels were significantly lowered. Supernatants from fermentation reactions of wheat bran incubated with and without xylanase and cecal microbiota were tested in an intestinal epithelial layer permeability assay using Caco-2 cells stimulated with LPS. The xylanase addition to the bran incubated with cecal content of broilers reversed LPS-induced epithelial layer resistance losses. The GH11 xylanase was able to solubilise and degrade wheat bran AX to yield low avDP AXOS that can be fermented by cecal microbiota, resulting in microbiota shifts and beneficial effects on transepithelial resistance in vitro.},
  author       = {Ravn, Jonas Laukkonen and Thogersen, Julian Charlotte and Eklof, Jens and Pettersson, Dan and Ducatelle, Richard and Van Immerseel, Filip and Pedersen, Ninfa Rangel},
  issn         = {0377-8401},
  journal      = {ANIMAL FEED SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {113--123},
  title        = {GH11 xylanase increases prebiotic oligosaccharides from wheat bran favouring butyrate-producing bacteria in vitro},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.02.011},
  volume       = {226},
  year         = {2017},
}

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