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Associations of whole blood n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids with blood pressure in children and adolescents : results from the IDEFICS/I.Family cohort

(2016) PLOS ONE. 11(11).
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Abstract
Background : Polyunsaturated n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are precursors of biologically active metabolites that affect blood pressure (BP) regulation. This study investigated the association of n-3 and n-6 PUFA and BP in children and adolescents. Methods : In a subsample of 1267 children aged 2-9 years at baseline of the European IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary-and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) cohort whole blood fatty acids were measured by a validated gas chromatographic method. Systolic and diastolic BP was measured at baseline and after two and six years. Mixed-effects models were used to assess the associations between fatty acids at baseline and BP z-scores over time adjusting for relevant covariables. Models were further estimated stratified by sex and weight status. Results : The baseline level of arachidonic acid was positively associated with subsequent systolic BP (beta = 0.08, P = 0.002) and diastolic BP (beta = 0.07, P< 0.001). In thin/normal weight children, baseline alpha-linolenic (beta = -1.13, P = 0.003) and eicosapentaenoic acid (beta = -0.85, P = 0.003) levels were inversely related to baseline and also to subsequent systolic BP and alpha-linolenic acid to subsequent diastolic BP. In overweight/obese children, baseline eicosapentaenoic acid level was positively associated with baseline diastolic BP (beta = 0.54, P = 0.005). Conclusions : Low blood arachidonic acid levels in the whole sample and high n-3 PUFA levels in thin/normal weight children are associated with lower and therefore healthier BP. The beneficial effects of high n-3 PUFA on BP were not observed in overweight/obese children, suggesting that they may have been overlaid by the unfavorable effects of excess weight.
Keywords
CARDIOVASCULAR RISK-FACTORS, LONG-CHAIN OMEGA-3-FATTY-ACIDS, EICOSAPENTAENOIC ACID, GENDER-DIFFERENCES, PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY, METABOLIC HEALTH, REFERENCE VALUES, ELDERLY CHINESE, SCHOOL-CHILDREN, OBESE CHILDREN

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Chicago
Wolters, Maike, Valeria Pala, Paola Russo, Patrizia Risé, Luis A Moreno, Stefaan De Henauw, Kirsten Mehlig, et al. 2016. “Associations of Whole Blood N-3 and N-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids with Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents : Results from the IDEFICS/I.Family Cohort.” Plos One 11 (11).
APA
Wolters, Maike, Pala, V., Russo, P., Risé, P., Moreno, L. A., De Henauw, S., Mehlig, K., et al. (2016). Associations of whole blood n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids with blood pressure in children and adolescents : results from the IDEFICS/I.Family cohort. PLOS ONE, 11(11).
Vancouver
1.
Wolters M, Pala V, Russo P, Risé P, Moreno LA, De Henauw S, et al. Associations of whole blood n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids with blood pressure in children and adolescents : results from the IDEFICS/I.Family cohort. PLOS ONE. 2016;11(11).
MLA
Wolters, Maike, Valeria Pala, Paola Russo, et al. “Associations of Whole Blood N-3 and N-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids with Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents : Results from the IDEFICS/I.Family Cohort.” PLOS ONE 11.11 (2016): n. pag. Print.
@article{8538761,
  abstract     = {Background : Polyunsaturated n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are precursors of biologically active metabolites that affect blood pressure (BP) regulation. This study investigated the association of n-3 and n-6 PUFA and BP in children and adolescents. 
Methods : In a subsample of 1267 children aged 2-9 years at baseline of the European IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary-and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) cohort whole blood fatty acids were measured by a validated gas chromatographic method. Systolic and diastolic BP was measured at baseline and after two and six years. Mixed-effects models were used to assess the associations between fatty acids at baseline and BP z-scores over time adjusting for relevant covariables. Models were further estimated stratified by sex and weight status. 
Results : The baseline level of arachidonic acid was positively associated with subsequent systolic BP (beta = 0.08, P = 0.002) and diastolic BP (beta = 0.07, P{\textlangle} 0.001). In thin/normal weight children, baseline alpha-linolenic (beta = -1.13, P = 0.003) and eicosapentaenoic acid (beta = -0.85, P = 0.003) levels were inversely related to baseline and also to subsequent systolic BP and alpha-linolenic acid to subsequent diastolic BP. In overweight/obese children, baseline eicosapentaenoic acid level was positively associated with baseline diastolic BP (beta = 0.54, P = 0.005). 
Conclusions : Low blood arachidonic acid levels in the whole sample and high n-3 PUFA levels in thin/normal weight children are associated with lower and therefore healthier BP. The beneficial effects of high n-3 PUFA on BP were not observed in overweight/obese children, suggesting that they may have been overlaid by the unfavorable effects of excess weight.},
  articleno    = {e0165981},
  author       = {Wolters, Maike and Pala, Valeria and Russo, Paola and Ris{\'e}, Patrizia and Moreno, Luis A and De Henauw, Stefaan and Mehlig, Kirsten and Veidebaum, Toomas and Moln{\'a}r, Den{\'e}s and Tornaritis, Michael and Galli, Claudio and Ahrens, Wolfgang and B{\"o}rnhorst, Claudia},
  issn         = {1932-6203},
  journal      = {PLOS ONE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {11},
  pages        = {17},
  title        = {Associations of whole blood n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids with blood pressure in children and adolescents : results from the IDEFICS/I.Family cohort},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0165981},
  volume       = {11},
  year         = {2016},
}

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