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Systolic blood pressure, routine kidney variables and renal ultrasonographic findings in cats naturally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus

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Abstract
Objectives: Hypertension is a common cause of proteinuria in HIV-infected people. In cats, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection appears to be associated with proteinuria. Therefore, the results from systolic blood pressure (SBP) measurements in naturally infected FIV-positive cats were reviewed to assess whether hypertension contributes to the observed proteinuria in these cats. Ultrasonographic findings in FIV-positive cats were reviewed to complete renal assessment and to extend the scant knowledge on renal ultrasonography in cats. Methods: Data from client-owned, naturally infected FIV-positive cats were retrospectively reviewed. To obtain a control group, records were reviewed from age-matched, privately owned, FIV-negative cats. Results: Data from 91 FIV-infected and 113 control cats were compared. FIV-infected cats showed a significantly lower SBP (P <0.0001) and significantly fewer FIV-infected cats were hypertensive (160 mmHg) compared with control cats (P = 0.025). The prevalence of renal azotaemia did not significantly differ between groups, although FIV-infected cats had significantly lower urine specific gravity (USG) (P = 0.0273) and a higher incidence of USG below 1.035 (P = 0.043). Urinary protein:creatinine ratio (UPC) was significantly higher in FIV-infected cats (P = 0.0005) and proteinuria (UPC >0.4) occurred more frequently in FIV-infected cats (P <0.001). Renal ultrasonography showed abnormalities in 60/91 FIV-infected cats, with hyperechogenic cortices in 39/91 and enlarged kidneys in 31/91. Conclusions and relevance: Hypertension can be excluded as a common cause of renal damage leading to proteinuria in FIV-infected cats. Proteinuria and poorly concentrated urine are common in naturally infected FIV-positive cats, in contrast to azotaemia. Clinicians should cautiously interpret ultrasonographic abnormalities as these occur in over half of FIV-infected cats.
Keywords
GLOMERULAR-FILTRATION-RATE, CYSTATIN C, SYSTEMIC HYPERTENSION, DISEASE, ASSOCIATION, SURVIVAL, PATHOGENESIS, INVOLVEMENT, AMYLOIDOSIS, GUIDELINES

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Chicago
Taffin, Elien, Dominique Paepe, Liesbeth Ghys, Katrien De Roover, Isabel Van de Maele, Jimmy Saunders, Luc Duchateau, and Sylvie Daminet. 2017. “Systolic Blood Pressure, Routine Kidney Variables and Renal Ultrasonographic Findings in Cats Naturally Infected with Feline Immunodeficiency Virus.” Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery 19 (6): 672–679.
APA
Taffin, E., Paepe, D., Ghys, L., De Roover, K., Van de Maele, I., Saunders, J., Duchateau, L., et al. (2017). Systolic blood pressure, routine kidney variables and renal ultrasonographic findings in cats naturally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus. JOURNAL OF FELINE MEDICINE AND SURGERY, 19(6), 672–679.
Vancouver
1.
Taffin E, Paepe D, Ghys L, De Roover K, Van de Maele I, Saunders J, et al. Systolic blood pressure, routine kidney variables and renal ultrasonographic findings in cats naturally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus. JOURNAL OF FELINE MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 2017;19(6):672–9.
MLA
Taffin, Elien, Dominique Paepe, Liesbeth Ghys, et al. “Systolic Blood Pressure, Routine Kidney Variables and Renal Ultrasonographic Findings in Cats Naturally Infected with Feline Immunodeficiency Virus.” JOURNAL OF FELINE MEDICINE AND SURGERY 19.6 (2017): 672–679. Print.
@article{8537982,
  abstract     = {Objectives: Hypertension is a common cause of proteinuria in HIV-infected people. In cats, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection appears to be associated with proteinuria. Therefore, the results from systolic blood pressure (SBP) measurements in naturally infected FIV-positive cats were reviewed to assess whether hypertension contributes to the observed proteinuria in these cats. Ultrasonographic findings in FIV-positive cats were reviewed to complete renal assessment and to extend the scant knowledge on renal ultrasonography in cats. 
Methods: Data from client-owned, naturally infected FIV-positive cats were retrospectively reviewed. To obtain a control group, records were reviewed from age-matched, privately owned, FIV-negative cats. 
Results: Data from 91 FIV-infected and 113 control cats were compared. FIV-infected cats showed a significantly lower SBP (P {\textlangle}0.0001) and significantly fewer FIV-infected cats were hypertensive (160 mmHg) compared with control cats (P = 0.025). The prevalence of renal azotaemia did not significantly differ between groups, although FIV-infected cats had significantly lower urine specific gravity (USG) (P = 0.0273) and a higher incidence of USG below 1.035 (P = 0.043). Urinary protein:creatinine ratio (UPC) was significantly higher in FIV-infected cats (P = 0.0005) and proteinuria (UPC {\textrangle}0.4) occurred more frequently in FIV-infected cats (P {\textlangle}0.001). Renal ultrasonography showed abnormalities in 60/91 FIV-infected cats, with hyperechogenic cortices in 39/91 and enlarged kidneys in 31/91. 
Conclusions and relevance: Hypertension can be excluded as a common cause of renal damage leading to proteinuria in FIV-infected cats. Proteinuria and poorly concentrated urine are common in naturally infected FIV-positive cats, in contrast to azotaemia. Clinicians should cautiously interpret ultrasonographic abnormalities as these occur in over half of FIV-infected cats.},
  author       = {Taffin, Elien and Paepe, Dominique and Ghys, Liesbeth and De Roover, Katrien and Van de Maele, Isabel and Saunders, Jimmy and Duchateau, Luc and Daminet, Sylvie},
  issn         = {1098-612X},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF FELINE MEDICINE AND SURGERY},
  keyword      = {GLOMERULAR-FILTRATION-RATE,CYSTATIN C,SYSTEMIC HYPERTENSION,DISEASE,ASSOCIATION,SURVIVAL,PATHOGENESIS,INVOLVEMENT,AMYLOIDOSIS,GUIDELINES},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {6},
  pages        = {672--679},
  title        = {Systolic blood pressure, routine kidney variables and renal ultrasonographic findings in cats naturally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1098612X16653165},
  volume       = {19},
  year         = {2017},
}

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