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Reversed patent ductus arteriosus and multiple congenital malformations in an 8-day-old Arabo-Friesian foal

Alexander Dufourni (UGent) , Annelies Decloedt (UGent) , Dominique De Clercq (UGent) , Veronique Saey (UGent) , Koen Chiers (UGent) and Gunther van Loon (UGent)
(2018) EQUINE VETERINARY EDUCATION. 30(6). p.315-321
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Abstract
An 8-day-old Arabo-Friesian filly was presented with signs of severe dyspnoea, tachypnoea, coughing and cyanotic mucous membranes. On auscultation, a bilateral grade V/VI continuous heart murmur and heart rate of 155 beats/min (sinus tachycardia) were detected. Lung ultrasonography revealed pronounced comet tail artefacts indicating lung oedema. chocardiography showed right ventricular hypertrophy, a 1.2 cm muscular ventricular septal defect with a left-to-right shunt, a stenotic bicuspid pulmonary valve and severe mitral and tricuspid valve regurgitation. Tricuspid regurgitation peak velocity indicated a right ventricular systolic pressure of 119 mmHg. The pulmonary artery was severely dilated and a 1 cm diameter patent ductus arteriosus was found. Colour flow Doppler showed systolic ductal flow reversal with right-to-left shunting through the ductus. Arterial partial oxygen pressure and saturation were lower in the metatarsal artery (25 mmHg, saturation 52.6%) than in the carotid artery (31 mmHg, saturation 64.3%). Due to the poor rognosis, the foal was subjected to euthanasia and necropsy confirmed the ultrasonographic findings. Patent ductus arteriosus is a rare condition and occurs most frequently in combination with tetralogy and pentalogy of Fallot. A genetic basis for congenital cardiac disease, especially for ventricular septal defects, in Arabians and for aortic rupture and aorto-pulmonary fistulation in Friesians has been reported. Whether cross-breeding leads to an increased prevalence is unknown. This is the first case report with echocardiographic visualisation of reversed ductal flow in a neonatal Arabo-Friesian foal.
Keywords
horse, foal, continuous heart murmur, cyanosis, hypoxaemia, right-to-left shunt, AORTIC RUPTURE, THORACIC AORTA, HORSES, DOGS, MANAGEMENT, WARMBLOOD, DISEASE

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MLA
Dufourni, Alexander, Annelies Decloedt, Dominique De Clercq, et al. “Reversed Patent Ductus Arteriosus and Multiple Congenital Malformations in an 8-day-old Arabo-Friesian Foal.” EQUINE VETERINARY EDUCATION 30.6 (2018): 315–321. Print.
APA
Dufourni, A., Decloedt, A., De Clercq, D., Saey, V., Chiers, K., & van Loon, G. (2018). Reversed patent ductus arteriosus and multiple congenital malformations in an 8-day-old Arabo-Friesian foal. EQUINE VETERINARY EDUCATION, 30(6), 315–321.
Chicago author-date
Dufourni, Alexander, Annelies Decloedt, Dominique De Clercq, Veronique Saey, Koen Chiers, and Gunther van Loon. 2018. “Reversed Patent Ductus Arteriosus and Multiple Congenital Malformations in an 8-day-old Arabo-Friesian Foal.” Equine Veterinary Education 30 (6): 315–321.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Dufourni, Alexander, Annelies Decloedt, Dominique De Clercq, Veronique Saey, Koen Chiers, and Gunther van Loon. 2018. “Reversed Patent Ductus Arteriosus and Multiple Congenital Malformations in an 8-day-old Arabo-Friesian Foal.” Equine Veterinary Education 30 (6): 315–321.
Vancouver
1.
Dufourni A, Decloedt A, De Clercq D, Saey V, Chiers K, van Loon G. Reversed patent ductus arteriosus and multiple congenital malformations in an 8-day-old Arabo-Friesian foal. EQUINE VETERINARY EDUCATION. 2018;30(6):315–21.
IEEE
[1]
A. Dufourni, A. Decloedt, D. De Clercq, V. Saey, K. Chiers, and G. van Loon, “Reversed patent ductus arteriosus and multiple congenital malformations in an 8-day-old Arabo-Friesian foal,” EQUINE VETERINARY EDUCATION, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 315–321, 2018.
@article{8537521,
  abstract     = {An 8-day-old Arabo-Friesian filly was presented with signs of severe dyspnoea, tachypnoea, coughing and cyanotic mucous membranes. On auscultation, a bilateral grade V/VI continuous heart murmur and heart rate of 155 beats/min (sinus tachycardia) were detected. Lung ultrasonography revealed pronounced comet tail artefacts indicating lung oedema. chocardiography showed right ventricular hypertrophy, a 1.2 cm muscular ventricular septal defect with a left-to-right shunt, a stenotic bicuspid pulmonary valve and severe mitral and tricuspid valve regurgitation. Tricuspid regurgitation peak velocity indicated a right ventricular systolic pressure of 119 mmHg. The pulmonary artery was severely dilated and a 1 cm diameter patent ductus arteriosus was found. Colour flow Doppler showed systolic ductal flow reversal with right-to-left shunting through the ductus. Arterial partial oxygen pressure and saturation were lower in the metatarsal artery (25 mmHg, saturation 52.6%) than in the carotid artery (31 mmHg, saturation 64.3%). Due to the poor rognosis, the foal was subjected to euthanasia and necropsy confirmed the ultrasonographic findings. Patent ductus arteriosus is a rare condition and occurs most frequently in combination with tetralogy and pentalogy of Fallot. A genetic basis for congenital cardiac disease, especially for ventricular septal defects, in Arabians and for aortic rupture and aorto-pulmonary fistulation in Friesians has been reported. Whether cross-breeding leads to an increased prevalence is unknown. This is the first case report with echocardiographic visualisation of reversed ductal flow in a neonatal Arabo-Friesian foal.},
  author       = {Dufourni, Alexander and Decloedt, Annelies and De Clercq, Dominique and Saey, Veronique and Chiers, Koen and van Loon, Gunther},
  issn         = {0957-7734},
  journal      = {EQUINE VETERINARY EDUCATION},
  keywords     = {horse,foal,continuous heart murmur,cyanosis,hypoxaemia,right-to-left shunt,AORTIC RUPTURE,THORACIC AORTA,HORSES,DOGS,MANAGEMENT,WARMBLOOD,DISEASE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {6},
  pages        = {315--321},
  title        = {Reversed patent ductus arteriosus and multiple congenital malformations in an 8-day-old Arabo-Friesian foal},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eve.12790},
  volume       = {30},
  year         = {2018},
}

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