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Effect of gestational age on the epidemiology of late-onset sepsis in neonatal intensive care units : a review

Elsa da Palma Afonso (UGent) and Stijn Blot (UGent)
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Abstract
Introduction: Neonatal sepsis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Late-onset sepsis affects a significant percentage of infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Most affected newborns are preterm or low birth weight, but late-onset sepsis also affects late preterm and term infants. Understanding how gestational age affects the epidemiology of late-onset sepsis can be of use when defining strategies for its prevention and clinical management in NICU. Areas covered: Available evidence suggests the incidence and mortality of late-onset sepsis is higher in preterm and VLBW infants, but pathogen distribution and risk exposure is similar across all infants admitted to NICU. More research is required for late-onset sepsis in late preterm and term infants admitted to NICU. There is some research insight on the impact of gut bacteria in the epidemiology of Gram-negative sepsis, which could benefit from further dedicated studies. Expert commentary: Understanding the manner in which some infants develop severe sepsis and others don't and what the long-term outcomes are is fundamental to guide management strategies. Further research should focus both on infants' characteristics and on pathogenic processes. The ultimate goal is to be able to design guidelines for prevention and management of sepsis that are adapted to a varied neonatal population.
Keywords
NICU, Neonatal sepsis, late-onset sepsis, epidemiology, gram-negative pathogens, CoNS, fungi, LOW-BIRTH-WEIGHT, BLOOD-STREAM INFECTIONS, CRITICALLY-ILL PATIENTS, COAGULASE-NEGATIVE STAPHYLOCOCCI, LATE PRETERM INFANTS, RISK-FACTORS, PSEUDOMONAS-AERUGINOSA, ATTRIBUTABLE MORTALITY, INVASIVE CANDIDIASIS, TERM

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Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

Chicago
da Palma Afonso, Elsa, and Stijn Blot. 2017. “Effect of Gestational Age on the Epidemiology of Late-onset Sepsis in Neonatal Intensive Care Units : a Review.” Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy 15 (10): 917–924.
APA
da Palma Afonso, E., & Blot, S. (2017). Effect of gestational age on the epidemiology of late-onset sepsis in neonatal intensive care units : a review. EXPERT REVIEW OF ANTI-INFECTIVE THERAPY, 15(10), 917–924.
Vancouver
1.
da Palma Afonso E, Blot S. Effect of gestational age on the epidemiology of late-onset sepsis in neonatal intensive care units : a review. EXPERT REVIEW OF ANTI-INFECTIVE THERAPY. 2017;15(10):917–24.
MLA
da Palma Afonso, Elsa, and Stijn Blot. “Effect of Gestational Age on the Epidemiology of Late-onset Sepsis in Neonatal Intensive Care Units : a Review.” EXPERT REVIEW OF ANTI-INFECTIVE THERAPY 15.10 (2017): 917–924. Print.
@article{8537228,
  abstract     = {Introduction: Neonatal sepsis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Late-onset sepsis affects a significant percentage of infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Most affected newborns are preterm or low birth weight, but late-onset sepsis also affects late preterm and term infants. Understanding how gestational age affects the epidemiology of late-onset sepsis can be of use when defining strategies for its prevention and clinical management in NICU.
Areas covered: Available evidence suggests the incidence and mortality of late-onset sepsis is higher in preterm and VLBW infants, but pathogen distribution and risk exposure is similar across all infants admitted to NICU. More research is required for late-onset sepsis in late preterm and term infants admitted to NICU. There is some research insight on the impact of gut bacteria in the epidemiology of Gram-negative sepsis, which could benefit from further dedicated studies.
Expert commentary: Understanding the manner in which some infants develop severe sepsis and others don't and what the long-term outcomes are is fundamental to guide management strategies. Further research should focus both on infants' characteristics and on pathogenic processes. The ultimate goal is to be able to design guidelines for prevention and management of sepsis that are adapted to a varied neonatal population.},
  author       = {da Palma Afonso, Elsa and Blot, Stijn},
  issn         = {1478-7210},
  journal      = {EXPERT REVIEW OF ANTI-INFECTIVE THERAPY},
  keyword      = {NICU,Neonatal sepsis,late-onset sepsis,epidemiology,gram-negative pathogens,CoNS,fungi,LOW-BIRTH-WEIGHT,BLOOD-STREAM INFECTIONS,CRITICALLY-ILL PATIENTS,COAGULASE-NEGATIVE STAPHYLOCOCCI,LATE PRETERM INFANTS,RISK-FACTORS,PSEUDOMONAS-AERUGINOSA,ATTRIBUTABLE MORTALITY,INVASIVE CANDIDIASIS,TERM},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {10},
  pages        = {917--924},
  title        = {Effect of gestational age on the epidemiology of late-onset sepsis in neonatal intensive care units : a review},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14787210.2017.1379394},
  volume       = {15},
  year         = {2017},
}

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