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Radiofrequency exposure near an attocell as part of an ultra-high density access network

Arno Thielens (UGent), Günter Vermeeren (UGent), Olivier Caytan (UGent), Guy Torfs (UGent), Piet Demeester (UGent), Johan Bauwelinck (UGent), Hendrik Rogier (UGent), Luc Martens (UGent) and Wout Joseph (UGent)
(2017) BIOELECTROMAGNETICS. 38(4). p.295-306
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Abstract
In the future, wireless radiofrequency (RF) telecommunications networks will provide users with gigabit-per-second data rates. Therefore, these networks are evolving toward hybrid networks, which will include commonly used macro- and microcells in combination with local ultra-high density access networks consisting of so-called attocells. The use of attocells requires a proper compliance assessment of exposure to RF electromagnetic radiation. This paper presents, for the first time, such a compliance assessment of an attocell operating at 3.5GHz with an input power of 1mW, based on both root-mean-squared electric field strength (E-rms) and peak 10g-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR(10g)) values. The E-rms values near the attocell were determined using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations and measurements by a tri-axial probe. They were compared to the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection's (ICNIRP) reference levels. All measured and simulated E-rms values above the attocell were below 5.9V/m and lower than reference levels. The SAR(10g) values were measured in a homogeneous phantom, which resulted in an SAR(10g) of 9.7mW/kg, and used FDTD simulations, which resulted in an SAR(10g) of 7.2mW/kg. FDTD simulations of realistic exposure situations were executed using a heterogeneous phantom, which yielded SAR(10g) values lower than 2.8mW/kg. The studied dosimetric quantities were in compliance with ICNIRP guidelines when the attocell was fed an input power <1mW. The deployment of attocells is thus a feasible solution for providing broadband data transmission without drastically increasing personal RF exposure. (C) 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Keywords
IBCN, BASE STATION ANTENNAS, RF-EMF EXPOSURE, SAR, ENVIRONMENTS, FEMTOCELLS, SUBSTRATE, CHILDREN, MODELS, WAVES, GHZ

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Citation

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Chicago
Thielens, Arno, Günter Vermeeren, Olivier Caytan, Guy Torfs, Piet Demeester, Johan Bauwelinck, Hendrik Rogier, Luc Martens, and Wout Joseph. 2017. “Radiofrequency Exposure Near an Attocell as Part of an Ultra-high Density Access Network.” Bioelectromagnetics 38 (4): 295–306.
APA
Thielens, A., Vermeeren, G., Caytan, O., Torfs, G., Demeester, P., Bauwelinck, J., Rogier, H., et al. (2017). Radiofrequency exposure near an attocell as part of an ultra-high density access network. BIOELECTROMAGNETICS, 38(4), 295–306.
Vancouver
1.
Thielens A, Vermeeren G, Caytan O, Torfs G, Demeester P, Bauwelinck J, et al. Radiofrequency exposure near an attocell as part of an ultra-high density access network. BIOELECTROMAGNETICS. 2017;38(4):295–306.
MLA
Thielens, Arno, Günter Vermeeren, Olivier Caytan, et al. “Radiofrequency Exposure Near an Attocell as Part of an Ultra-high Density Access Network.” BIOELECTROMAGNETICS 38.4 (2017): 295–306. Print.
@article{8537086,
  abstract     = {In the future, wireless radiofrequency (RF) telecommunications networks will provide users with gigabit-per-second data rates. Therefore, these networks are evolving toward hybrid networks, which will include commonly used macro- and microcells in combination with local ultra-high density access networks consisting of so-called attocells. The use of attocells requires a proper compliance assessment of exposure to RF electromagnetic radiation. This paper presents, for the first time, such a compliance assessment of an attocell operating at 3.5GHz with an input power of 1mW, based on both root-mean-squared electric field strength (E-rms) and peak 10g-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR(10g)) values. The E-rms values near the attocell were determined using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations and measurements by a tri-axial probe. They were compared to the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection's (ICNIRP) reference levels. All measured and simulated E-rms values above the attocell were below 5.9V/m and lower than reference levels. The SAR(10g) values were measured in a homogeneous phantom, which resulted in an SAR(10g) of 9.7mW/kg, and used FDTD simulations, which resulted in an SAR(10g) of 7.2mW/kg. FDTD simulations of realistic exposure situations were executed using a heterogeneous phantom, which yielded SAR(10g) values lower than 2.8mW/kg. The studied dosimetric quantities were in compliance with ICNIRP guidelines when the attocell was fed an input power {\textlangle}1mW. The deployment of attocells is thus a feasible solution for providing broadband data transmission without drastically increasing personal RF exposure. (C) 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.},
  author       = {Thielens, Arno and Vermeeren, G{\"u}nter and Caytan, Olivier and Torfs, Guy and Demeester, Piet and Bauwelinck, Johan and Rogier, Hendrik and Martens, Luc and Joseph, Wout},
  issn         = {0197-8462},
  journal      = {BIOELECTROMAGNETICS},
  keyword      = {IBCN,BASE STATION ANTENNAS,RF-EMF EXPOSURE,SAR,ENVIRONMENTS,FEMTOCELLS,SUBSTRATE,CHILDREN,MODELS,WAVES,GHZ},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {295--306},
  title        = {Radiofrequency exposure near an attocell as part of an ultra-high density access network},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bem.22045},
  volume       = {38},
  year         = {2017},
}

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