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Quantitative compositional analysis of Estonian shale oil using comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography

Nenad Ristic (UGent) , Marko Djokic (UGent) , Alar Konist, Kevin Van Geem (UGent) and Guy Marin (UGent)
(2017) FUEL PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY. 167. p.241-249
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Abstract
An Estonian pyrolysis shale oil has been characterized using comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) coupled to a flame ionization detector (FID) and time of flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). Oxygen containing compounds were abundant and the following classes were identified: benzenediols, hydroxybenzofurans, phenols, ketones, and naphthols. The large peak overlap observed for oxygenates with the hydrocarbon matrix using a non-polar × polar column combination made identification and quantification difficult. A methodology based on the more selective separation using a polar × non-polar and polar × midpolar column configurations was developed and tested. The obtained bidimensional resolution confirms that the method provides an improved separation of unsaturated hydrocarbons, mid-polar and even highly polar oxygen containing compounds. The use of an internal standard methodology allowed complete quantification of the pyrolysis shale oil both by carbon number and chemical class.
Keywords
RESONANCE MASS-SPECTROMETRY, ATOMIC-EMISSION DETECTION, REAL COMPLEX SAMPLES, SUPERCRITICAL-FLUID CHROMATOGRAPHY, NITROGEN-CONTAINING COMPOUNDS, CAPILLARY GC-GC, BIO-OILS, MIDDLE-DISTILLATES, CRUDE-OIL, ENANTIOMERIC DISTRIBUTION

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Chicago
Ristic, Nenad, Marko Djokic, Alar Konist, Kevin Van Geem, and Guy Marin. 2017. “Quantitative Compositional Analysis of Estonian Shale Oil Using Comprehensive Two Dimensional Gas Chromatography.” Fuel Processing Technology 167: 241–249.
APA
Ristic, N., Djokic, M., Konist, A., Van Geem, K., & Marin, G. (2017). Quantitative compositional analysis of Estonian shale oil using comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography. FUEL PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY, 167, 241–249.
Vancouver
1.
Ristic N, Djokic M, Konist A, Van Geem K, Marin G. Quantitative compositional analysis of Estonian shale oil using comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography. FUEL PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY. 2017;167:241–9.
MLA
Ristic, Nenad et al. “Quantitative Compositional Analysis of Estonian Shale Oil Using Comprehensive Two Dimensional Gas Chromatography.” FUEL PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY 167 (2017): 241–249. Print.
@article{8536593,
  abstract     = {An Estonian pyrolysis shale oil has been characterized using comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography
(GC × GC) coupled to a flame ionization detector (FID) and time of flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). Oxygen
containing compounds were abundant and the following classes were identified: benzenediols, hydroxybenzofurans, phenols, ketones, and naphthols. The large peak overlap observed for oxygenates with the hydrocarbon matrix using a non-polar × polar column combination made identification and quantification difficult. A methodology based on the more selective separation using a polar × non-polar and polar × midpolar column configurations was developed and tested. The obtained bidimensional resolution confirms that the method provides an improved separation of unsaturated hydrocarbons, mid-polar and even highly polar oxygen containing compounds. The use of an internal standard methodology allowed complete quantification of the pyrolysis shale oil both by carbon number and chemical class.},
  author       = {Ristic, Nenad and Djokic, Marko and Konist, Alar and Van Geem, Kevin and Marin, Guy},
  issn         = {0378-3820 },
  journal      = {FUEL PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY},
  keywords     = {RESONANCE MASS-SPECTROMETRY,ATOMIC-EMISSION DETECTION,REAL COMPLEX SAMPLES,SUPERCRITICAL-FLUID CHROMATOGRAPHY,NITROGEN-CONTAINING COMPOUNDS,CAPILLARY GC-GC,BIO-OILS,MIDDLE-DISTILLATES,CRUDE-OIL,ENANTIOMERIC DISTRIBUTION},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {241--249},
  title        = {Quantitative compositional analysis of Estonian shale oil using comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2017.07.008},
  volume       = {167},
  year         = {2017},
}

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