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Workplace learning through collaboration in primary healthcare : a BEME realist review of what works, for whom and in what circumstances : BEME Guide no. 46

(2018) MEDICAL TEACHER. 40(2). p.117-134
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Abstract
Background: Changes in healthcare practice toward more proactive clinical, organizational and interprofessional working require primary healthcare professionals to learn continuously from each other through collaboration. This systematic review uses realist methodology to consolidate knowledge on the characteristics of workplace learning (WPL) through collaboration by primary healthcare professionals. Methods: Following several scoping searches, five electronic bibliographic databases were searched from January 1990 to December 2015 for relevant gray and published literature written in English, French, German and Dutch. Reviewers worked in pairs to identify relevant articles. A set of statements, based on the findings of our scoping searches, was used as a coding tree to analyze the papers. Interpretation of the results was done in alternating pairs, discussed within the author group and triangulated with stakeholders' views. Results: Out of 6930 references, we included 42 publications that elucidated who, when, how and what primary healthcare professionals learn through collaboration. Papers were both qualitative and quantitative in design, and focused largely on WPL of collaborating general practitioners and nurses. No striking differences between different professionals within primary healthcare were noted. Professionals were often unaware of the learning that occurs through collaboration. WPL happened predominantly through informal discussions about patient cases and modeling for other professionals. Any professionals could both learn and facilitate others' learning. Outcomes were diverse, but contextualized knowledge seemed to be important. Discussion/conclusions: Primary care professionals' WPL is multifaceted. Existing social constructivist and social cognitivist learning theories form a framework from which to interpret these findings. Primary care policy makers and managers should ensure that professionals have access to protected time, earmarked for learning. Time is required for reflection, to learn new ways of interaction and to develop new habits within clinical practice.
Keywords
CRITICALLY REFLECTIVE DIALOGUES, MEDICAL-EDUCATION, GENERAL-PRACTICE, INTERPROFESSIONAL EDUCATION, NURSES EXPERIENCES, FAMILY MEDICINE, KNOWLEDGE, PERFORMANCE, PROJECT, TEAMS

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Chicago
Mertens, Fien, Esther de Groot, Loes Meijer, Johan Wens, Mary Gemma Cherry, Myriam Deveugele, Roger Damoiseaux, Ann Stes, and Peter Pype. 2018. “Workplace Learning Through Collaboration in Primary Healthcare : a BEME Realist Review of What Works, for Whom and in What Circumstances : BEME Guide No. 46.” Medical Teacher 40 (2): 117–134.
APA
Mertens, Fien, de Groot, E., Meijer, L., Wens, J., Cherry, M. G., Deveugele, M., Damoiseaux, R., et al. (2018). Workplace learning through collaboration in primary healthcare : a BEME realist review of what works, for whom and in what circumstances : BEME Guide no. 46. MEDICAL TEACHER, 40(2), 117–134.
Vancouver
1.
Mertens F, de Groot E, Meijer L, Wens J, Cherry MG, Deveugele M, et al. Workplace learning through collaboration in primary healthcare : a BEME realist review of what works, for whom and in what circumstances : BEME Guide no. 46. MEDICAL TEACHER. 2018;40(2):117–34.
MLA
Mertens, Fien, Esther de Groot, Loes Meijer, et al. “Workplace Learning Through Collaboration in Primary Healthcare : a BEME Realist Review of What Works, for Whom and in What Circumstances : BEME Guide No. 46.” MEDICAL TEACHER 40.2 (2018): 117–134. Print.
@article{8536105,
  abstract     = {Background: Changes in healthcare practice toward more proactive clinical, organizational and interprofessional working require primary healthcare professionals to learn continuously from each other through collaboration. This systematic review uses realist methodology to consolidate knowledge on the characteristics of workplace learning (WPL) through collaboration by primary healthcare professionals.
Methods: Following several scoping searches, five electronic bibliographic databases were searched from January 1990 to December 2015 for relevant gray and published literature written in English, French, German and Dutch. Reviewers worked in pairs to identify relevant articles. A set of statements, based on the findings of our scoping searches, was used as a coding tree to analyze the papers. Interpretation of the results was done in alternating pairs, discussed within the author group and triangulated with stakeholders' views.
Results: Out of 6930 references, we included 42 publications that elucidated who, when, how and what primary healthcare professionals learn through collaboration. Papers were both qualitative and quantitative in design, and focused largely on WPL of collaborating general practitioners and nurses. No striking differences between different professionals within primary healthcare were noted. Professionals were often unaware of the learning that occurs through collaboration. WPL happened predominantly through informal discussions about patient cases and modeling for other professionals. Any professionals could both learn and facilitate others' learning. Outcomes were diverse, but contextualized knowledge seemed to be important.
Discussion/conclusions: Primary care professionals' WPL is multifaceted. Existing social constructivist and social cognitivist learning theories form a framework from which to interpret these findings. Primary care policy makers and managers should ensure that professionals have access to protected time, earmarked for learning. Time is required for reflection, to learn new ways of interaction and to develop new habits within clinical practice.},
  author       = {Mertens, Fien and de Groot, Esther and Meijer, Loes and Wens, Johan and Cherry, Mary Gemma and Deveugele, Myriam and Damoiseaux, Roger and Stes, Ann and Pype, Peter},
  issn         = {0142-159X},
  journal      = {MEDICAL TEACHER},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {117--134},
  title        = {Workplace learning through collaboration in primary healthcare : a BEME realist review of what works, for whom and in what circumstances : BEME Guide no. 46},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0142159x.2017.1390216},
  volume       = {40},
  year         = {2018},
}

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