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Interspecific competition counteracts negative effects of dispersal on adaptation of an arthropod herbivore to a new host

(2017) JOURNAL OF EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY. 30(11). p.1966-1977
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Abstract
Dispersal and competition have both been suggested to drive variation in adaptability to a new environment, either positively or negatively. A simultaneous experimental test of both mechanisms is however lacking. Here, we experimentally investigate how population dynamics and local adaptation to a new host plant in a model species, the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae), are affected by dispersal from a stock population (no-adapted) and competition with an already adapted spider mite species (Tetranychus evansi). For the population dynamics, we find that competition generally reduces population size and increases the risk of population extinction. However, these negative effects are counteracted by dispersal. For local adaptation, the roles of competition and dispersal are reversed. Without competition, dispersal exerts a negative effect on adaptation (measured as fecundity) to a novel host and females receiving the highest number of immigrants performed similarly to the stock population females. By contrast, with competition, adding more immigrants did not result in a lower fecundity. Females from populations with competition receiving the highest number of immigrants had a significantly higher fecundity than females from populations without competition (same dispersal treatment) and than the stock population females. We suggest that by exerting a stronger selection on the adapting populations, competition can counteract the migration load effect of dispersal. Interestingly, adaptation to the new host does not significantly reduce performance on the ancestral host, regardless of dispersal rate or competition. Our results highlight that assessments of how species can adapt to changing conditions need to jointly consider connectivity and the community context.
Keywords
dispersal, experimental evolution, interspecific competition, local adaptation, spider mites, TETRANYCHUS-URTICAE, PHYTOPHAGOUS MITE, NATURAL-SELECTION, LOCAL ADAPTATION, RANGE EVOLUTION, LIFE-HISTORY, TRADE-OFFS, PLANT, POPULATIONS, IMMIGRATION

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Chicago
Alzate Vallejo, Adriana, Karen Bisschop, RS Etienne, and Dries Bonte. 2017. “Interspecific Competition Counteracts Negative Effects of Dispersal on Adaptation of an Arthropod Herbivore to a New Host.” Journal of Evolutionary Biology 30 (11): 1966–1977.
APA
Alzate Vallejo, A., Bisschop, K., Etienne, R., & Bonte, D. (2017). Interspecific competition counteracts negative effects of dispersal on adaptation of an arthropod herbivore to a new host. JOURNAL OF EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY, 30(11), 1966–1977.
Vancouver
1.
Alzate Vallejo A, Bisschop K, Etienne R, Bonte D. Interspecific competition counteracts negative effects of dispersal on adaptation of an arthropod herbivore to a new host. JOURNAL OF EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY. 2017;30(11):1966–77.
MLA
Alzate Vallejo, Adriana, Karen Bisschop, RS Etienne, et al. “Interspecific Competition Counteracts Negative Effects of Dispersal on Adaptation of an Arthropod Herbivore to a New Host.” JOURNAL OF EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY 30.11 (2017): 1966–1977. Print.
@article{8535990,
  abstract     = {Dispersal and competition have both been suggested to drive variation in adaptability to a new environment, either positively or negatively. A simultaneous experimental test of both mechanisms is however lacking. Here, we experimentally investigate how population dynamics and local adaptation to a new host plant in a model species, the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae), are affected by dispersal from a stock population (no-adapted) and competition with an already adapted spider mite species (Tetranychus evansi). For the population dynamics, we find that competition generally reduces population size and increases the risk of population extinction. However, these negative effects are counteracted by dispersal. For local adaptation, the roles of competition and dispersal are reversed. Without competition, dispersal exerts a negative effect on adaptation (measured as fecundity) to a novel host and females receiving the highest number of immigrants performed similarly to the stock population females. By contrast, with competition, adding more immigrants did not result in a lower fecundity. Females from populations with competition receiving the highest number of immigrants had a significantly higher fecundity than females from populations without competition (same dispersal treatment) and than the stock population females. We suggest that by exerting a stronger selection on the adapting populations, competition can counteract the migration load effect of dispersal. Interestingly, adaptation to the new host does not significantly reduce performance on the ancestral host, regardless of dispersal rate or competition. Our results highlight that assessments of how species can adapt to changing conditions need to jointly consider connectivity and the community context.},
  author       = {Alzate Vallejo, Adriana and Bisschop, Karen and Etienne, RS and Bonte, Dries},
  issn         = {1010-061X},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY},
  keyword      = {dispersal,experimental evolution,interspecific competition,local adaptation,spider mites,TETRANYCHUS-URTICAE,PHYTOPHAGOUS MITE,NATURAL-SELECTION,LOCAL ADAPTATION,RANGE EVOLUTION,LIFE-HISTORY,TRADE-OFFS,PLANT,POPULATIONS,IMMIGRATION},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {11},
  pages        = {1966--1977},
  title        = {Interspecific competition counteracts negative effects of dispersal on adaptation of an arthropod herbivore to a new host},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jeb.13123},
  volume       = {30},
  year         = {2017},
}

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