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Mapping insecticide resistance and characterization of resistance mechanisms in Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) in Ethiopia

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Abstract
Background: The emergence and spread of insecticide resistance in the major African malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae (s.s.) and An. arabiensis may compromise the current vector control interventions and threatens the global malaria control and elimination efforts. Methods: Insecticide resistance was monitored in several study sites in Ethiopia from 2013 to 2015 using papers impregnated with discriminating concentrations of DDT, deltamethrin, bendiocarb, propoxur, malathion, fenitrothion and pirimiphos-methyl, following the WHO insecticide susceptibility test procedure. Mosquitoes sampled from different localities for WHO bioassay were morphologically identified as An. gambiae (s.l.) using standard taxonomic keys. Samples were identified to species using species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and screened for the presence of target site mutations L1014F, L1014S and N1575Y in the voltage gated sodium channel (VGSC) gene and G119S in the acethylcholinesterase (AChE) gene using allele-specific PCR. Biochemical assays were performed to assess elevated levels of acetylcholinesterases, carboxylcholinesterases, glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) and cytochrome P450s monooxygenases in wild populations of An. arabiensis, compared to the fully susceptible Sekoru An. arabiensis laboratory strain. Results: Populations of An. arabiensis were resistant to DDT and deltamethrin but were susceptible to fenitrothion in all the study sites. Reduced susceptibility to malathion, pirimiphos-methyl, propoxur and bendiocarb was observed in some of the study sites. Knockdown resistance (kdr L1014F) was detected in all mosquito populations with allele frequency ranging from 42 to 91%. Elevated levels of glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) were detected in some of the mosquito populations. However, no elevated levels of monooxygenases and esterases were detected in any of the populations assessed. Conclusions: Anopheles arabiensis populations from all surveyed sites in Ethiopia exhibited resistance against DDT and pyrethroids. Moreover, some mosquito populations exhibited resistance to propoxur and possible resistance to bendiocarb. Target site mutation kdr L1014F was detected in all mosquito populations while elevated levels of glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) was detected in some mosquito populations. The reduced susceptibility of An. arabiensis to propoxur and bendiocarb, which are currently used for indoor residual spraying (IRS) in Ethiopia, calls for continuous resistance monitoring, in order to plan and implement evidence based insecticide resistance management.
Keywords
GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASES, GATED SODIUM-CHANNEL, MOSQUITO VECTORS, MALARIA CONTROL, BURKINA-FASO, WEST-AFRICA, GAMBIAE, DDT, IDENTIFICATION, MUTATION, Malaria, Insecticide resistance, Anopheles arabiensis, Resistance, mechanisms, Vector control, Ethiopia

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Chicago
Alemayehu, Eba, Abebe Asale, Kasahun Eba, Kefelegn Getahun, Kora Tushune, Astrid Bryon, Evangelia Morou, et al. 2017. “Mapping Insecticide Resistance and Characterization of Resistance Mechanisms in Anopheles Arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) in Ethiopia.” Parasites & Vectors 10.
APA
Alemayehu, E., Asale, A., Eba, K., Getahun, K., Tushune, K., Bryon, A., Morou, E., et al. (2017). Mapping insecticide resistance and characterization of resistance mechanisms in Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) in Ethiopia. PARASITES & VECTORS, 10.
Vancouver
1.
Alemayehu E, Asale A, Eba K, Getahun K, Tushune K, Bryon A, et al. Mapping insecticide resistance and characterization of resistance mechanisms in Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) in Ethiopia. PARASITES & VECTORS. 2017;10.
MLA
Alemayehu, Eba, Abebe Asale, Kasahun Eba, et al. “Mapping Insecticide Resistance and Characterization of Resistance Mechanisms in Anopheles Arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) in Ethiopia.” PARASITES & VECTORS 10 (2017): n. pag. Print.
@article{8535108,
  abstract     = {Background: The emergence and spread of insecticide resistance in the major African malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae (s.s.) and An. arabiensis may compromise the current vector control interventions and threatens the global malaria control and elimination efforts. 
Methods: Insecticide resistance was monitored in several study sites in Ethiopia from 2013 to 2015 using papers impregnated with discriminating concentrations of DDT, deltamethrin, bendiocarb, propoxur, malathion, fenitrothion and pirimiphos-methyl, following the WHO insecticide susceptibility test procedure. Mosquitoes sampled from different localities for WHO bioassay were morphologically identified as An. gambiae (s.l.) using standard taxonomic keys. Samples were identified to species using species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and screened for the presence of target site mutations L1014F, L1014S and N1575Y in the voltage gated sodium channel (VGSC) gene and G119S in the acethylcholinesterase (AChE) gene using allele-specific PCR. Biochemical assays were performed to assess elevated levels of acetylcholinesterases, carboxylcholinesterases, glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) and cytochrome P450s monooxygenases in wild populations of An. arabiensis, compared to the fully susceptible Sekoru An. arabiensis laboratory strain. 
Results: Populations of An. arabiensis were resistant to DDT and deltamethrin but were susceptible to fenitrothion in all the study sites. Reduced susceptibility to malathion, pirimiphos-methyl, propoxur and bendiocarb was observed in some of the study sites. Knockdown resistance (kdr L1014F) was detected in all mosquito populations with allele frequency ranging from 42 to 91\%. Elevated levels of glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) were detected in some of the mosquito populations. However, no elevated levels of monooxygenases and esterases were detected in any of the populations assessed. 
Conclusions: Anopheles arabiensis populations from all surveyed sites in Ethiopia exhibited resistance against DDT and pyrethroids. Moreover, some mosquito populations exhibited resistance to propoxur and possible resistance to bendiocarb. Target site mutation kdr L1014F was detected in all mosquito populations while elevated levels of glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) was detected in some mosquito populations. The reduced susceptibility of An. arabiensis to propoxur and bendiocarb, which are currently used for indoor residual spraying (IRS) in Ethiopia, calls for continuous resistance monitoring, in order to plan and implement evidence based insecticide resistance management.},
  articleno    = {407},
  author       = {Alemayehu, Eba and Asale, Abebe and Eba, Kasahun and Getahun, Kefelegn and Tushune, Kora and Bryon, Astrid and Morou, Evangelia and Vontas, John and Van Leeuwen, Thomas and Duchateau, Luc and Yewhalaw, Delenasaw},
  issn         = {1756-3305},
  journal      = {PARASITES \& VECTORS},
  keyword      = {GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASES,GATED SODIUM-CHANNEL,MOSQUITO VECTORS,MALARIA CONTROL,BURKINA-FASO,WEST-AFRICA,GAMBIAE,DDT,IDENTIFICATION,MUTATION,Malaria,Insecticide resistance,Anopheles arabiensis,Resistance,mechanisms,Vector control,Ethiopia},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {11},
  title        = {Mapping insecticide resistance and characterization of resistance mechanisms in Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) in Ethiopia},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-017-2342-y},
  volume       = {10},
  year         = {2017},
}

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