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The role of the right presupplementary motor area in stopping action: two studies with event-related transcranial magnetic stimulation

(2012) JOURNAL OF NEUROPHYSIOLOGY. 108(2). p.380-389
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Abstract
Cai W, George JS, Verbruggen F, Chambers CD, Aron AR. The role of the right presupplementary motor area in stopping action: two studies with event-related transcranial magnetic stimulation. J Neurophysiol 108: 380-389, 2012. First published April 18, 2012; doi:10.1152/jn.00132.2012.-Rapidly stopping action engages a network in the brain including the right presupplementary motor area (preSMA), the right inferior frontal gyrus, and the basal ganglia. Yet the functional role of these different regions within the overall network still remains unclear. Here we focused on the role of the right preSMA in behavioral stopping. We hypothesized that the underlying neurocognitive function of this region is one or more of setting up a stopping rule in advance, modulating response tendencies (e. g., slowing down in anticipation of stopping), and implementing stopping when the stop signal occurs. We performed two experiments with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided, event-related, transcranial magnetic stimulation(TMS), during the performance of variants of the stop signal task. In experiment 1 we show that stimulation of the right preSMA versus vertex (control site) slowed the implementation of stopping (measured via stop signal reaction time) but had no influence on modulation of response tendencies. In experiment 2, we showed that stimulation of the right preSMA slowed implementation of stopping in a mechanistically selective form of stopping but had no influence on setting up stopping rules. The results go beyond the replication of prior findings by showing that TMS of the right preSMA impairs stopping behavior (including a behaviorally selective form of stopping) through a specific disruption of the implementation of stopping. Future studies are required to establish whether this was due to stimulation of the right preSMA itself or because of remote effects on the wider stopping network.
Keywords
MEDIAL FRONTAL-CORTEX, CONCURRENT TMS-FMRI, INFERIOR PREFRONTAL CORTEX, RESPONSE-INHIBITION, SIGNAL TASK, SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS, COGNITIVE, CONTROL, GO/NO-GO, FUNCTIONAL CONNECTIVITY, STRUCTURAL CONNECTIVITY, dorsomedial frontal cortex, cognitive control, conditional stop signal, task, selective stopping, stop signal reaction time

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Citation

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Chicago
Cai, Weidong, Jobi S. George, Frederick Verbruggen, Christopher D. Chambers, and Adam R. Aron. 2012. “The Role of the Right Presupplementary Motor Area in Stopping Action: Two Studies with Event-related Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation.” Journal of Neurophysiology 108 (2): 380–389.
APA
Cai, W., George, J. S., Verbruggen, F., Chambers, C. D., & Aron, A. R. (2012). The role of the right presupplementary motor area in stopping action: two studies with event-related transcranial magnetic stimulation. JOURNAL OF NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, 108(2), 380–389.
Vancouver
1.
Cai W, George JS, Verbruggen F, Chambers CD, Aron AR. The role of the right presupplementary motor area in stopping action: two studies with event-related transcranial magnetic stimulation. JOURNAL OF NEUROPHYSIOLOGY. Bethesda: Amer Physiological Soc; 2012;108(2):380–9.
MLA
Cai, Weidong et al. “The Role of the Right Presupplementary Motor Area in Stopping Action: Two Studies with Event-related Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation.” JOURNAL OF NEUROPHYSIOLOGY 108.2 (2012): 380–389. Print.
@article{8534973,
  abstract     = {Cai W, George JS, Verbruggen F, Chambers CD, Aron AR. The role of the right presupplementary motor area in stopping action: two studies with event-related transcranial magnetic stimulation. J Neurophysiol 108: 380-389, 2012. First published April 18, 2012; doi:10.1152/jn.00132.2012.-Rapidly stopping action engages a network in the brain including the right presupplementary motor area (preSMA), the right inferior frontal gyrus, and the basal ganglia. Yet the functional role of these different regions within the overall network still remains unclear. Here we focused on the role of the right preSMA in behavioral stopping. We hypothesized that the underlying neurocognitive function of this region is one or more of setting up a stopping rule in advance, modulating response tendencies (e. g., slowing down in anticipation of stopping), and implementing stopping when the stop signal occurs. We performed two experiments with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided, event-related, transcranial magnetic stimulation(TMS), during the performance of variants of the stop signal task. In experiment 1 we show that stimulation of the right preSMA versus vertex (control site) slowed the implementation of stopping (measured via stop signal reaction time) but had no influence on modulation of response tendencies. In experiment 2, we showed that stimulation of the right preSMA slowed implementation of stopping in a mechanistically selective form of stopping but had no influence on setting up stopping rules. The results go beyond the replication of prior findings by showing that TMS of the right preSMA impairs stopping behavior (including a behaviorally selective form of stopping) through a specific disruption of the implementation of stopping. Future studies are required to establish whether this was due to stimulation of the right preSMA itself or because of remote effects on the wider stopping network.},
  author       = {Cai, Weidong and George, Jobi S. and Verbruggen, Frederick and Chambers, Christopher D. and Aron, Adam R.},
  issn         = {0022-3077},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF NEUROPHYSIOLOGY},
  keywords     = {MEDIAL FRONTAL-CORTEX,CONCURRENT TMS-FMRI,INFERIOR PREFRONTAL CORTEX,RESPONSE-INHIBITION,SIGNAL TASK,SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS,COGNITIVE,CONTROL,GO/NO-GO,FUNCTIONAL CONNECTIVITY,STRUCTURAL CONNECTIVITY,dorsomedial frontal cortex,cognitive control,conditional stop signal,task,selective stopping,stop signal reaction time},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {380--389},
  publisher    = {Amer Physiological Soc},
  title        = {The role of the right presupplementary motor area in stopping action: two studies with event-related transcranial magnetic stimulation},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00132.2012},
  volume       = {108},
  year         = {2012},
}

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