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On the ability to inhibit thought and action : general and special theories of an act of control

(2014) PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW. 121(1). p.66-95
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Abstract
Response inhibition is an important act of control in many domains of psychology and neuroscience. It is often studied in a stop-signal task that requires subjects to inhibit an ongoing action in response to a stop signal. Performance in the stop-signal task is understood as a race between a go process that underlies the action and a stop process that inhibits the action. Responses are inhibited if the stop process finishes before the go process. The finishing time of the stop process is not directly observable; a mathematical model is required to estimate its duration. Logan and Cowan (1984) developed an independent race model that is widely used for this purpose. We present a general race model that extends the independent race model to account for the role of choice in go and stop processes, and a special race model that assumes each runner is a stochastic accumulator governed by a diffusion process. We apply the models to 2 data sets to test assumptions about selective influence of capacity limitations on drift rates and strategies on thresholds, which are largely confirmed. The model provides estimates of distributions of stop-signal response times, which previous models could not estimate. We discuss implications of viewing cognitive control as the result of a repertoire of acts of control tailored to different tasks and situations.
Keywords
STOP-SIGNAL PARADIGM, PSYCHOLOGICAL REFRACTORY PERIOD, DUAL-TASK, INTERFERENCE, PERCEPTUAL DECISION-MAKING, DIFFUSION-MODEL ANALYSIS, LATENT VARIABLE ANALYSIS, INFERIOR FRONTAL GYRUS, CHOICE RESPONSE-TIME, OF-NO-RETURN, COGNITIVE CONTROL, cognitive control, stop-signal, countermanding, race model, diffusion, model

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Chicago
Logan, Gordon D., Trisha Van Zandt, Frederick Verbruggen, and Eric-Jan Wagenmakers. 2014. “On the Ability to Inhibit Thought and Action : General and Special Theories of an Act of Control.” Psychological Review 121 (1): 66–95.
APA
Logan, G. D., Van Zandt, T., Verbruggen, F., & Wagenmakers, E.-J. (2014). On the ability to inhibit thought and action : general and special theories of an act of control. PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW, 121(1), 66–95.
Vancouver
1.
Logan GD, Van Zandt T, Verbruggen F, Wagenmakers E-J. On the ability to inhibit thought and action : general and special theories of an act of control. PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW. Washington: Amer Psychological Assoc; 2014;121(1):66–95.
MLA
Logan, Gordon D. et al. “On the Ability to Inhibit Thought and Action : General and Special Theories of an Act of Control.” PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW 121.1 (2014): 66–95. Print.
@article{8534953,
  abstract     = {Response inhibition is an important act of control in many domains of psychology and neuroscience. It is often studied in a stop-signal task that requires subjects to inhibit an ongoing action in response to a stop signal. Performance in the stop-signal task is understood as a race between a go process that underlies the action and a stop process that inhibits the action. Responses are inhibited if the stop process finishes before the go process. The finishing time of the stop process is not directly observable; a mathematical model is required to estimate its duration. Logan and Cowan (1984) developed an independent race model that is widely used for this purpose. We present a general race model that extends the independent race model to account for the role of choice in go and stop processes, and a special race model that assumes each runner is a stochastic accumulator governed by a diffusion process. We apply the models to 2 data sets to test assumptions about selective influence of capacity limitations on drift rates and strategies on thresholds, which are largely confirmed. The model provides estimates of distributions of stop-signal response times, which previous models could not estimate. We discuss implications of viewing cognitive control as the result of a repertoire of acts of control tailored to different tasks and situations.},
  author       = {Logan, Gordon D. and Van Zandt, Trisha and Verbruggen, Frederick and Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan},
  issn         = {0033-295X},
  journal      = {PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW},
  keywords     = {STOP-SIGNAL PARADIGM,PSYCHOLOGICAL REFRACTORY PERIOD,DUAL-TASK,INTERFERENCE,PERCEPTUAL DECISION-MAKING,DIFFUSION-MODEL ANALYSIS,LATENT VARIABLE ANALYSIS,INFERIOR FRONTAL GYRUS,CHOICE RESPONSE-TIME,OF-NO-RETURN,COGNITIVE CONTROL,cognitive control,stop-signal,countermanding,race model,diffusion,model},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {66--95},
  publisher    = {Amer Psychological Assoc},
  title        = {On the ability to inhibit thought and action : general and special theories of an act of control},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0035230},
  volume       = {121},
  year         = {2014},
}

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