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Should I stop or should I go? The role of associations and expectancies

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Abstract
Following exposure to consistent stimulus-stop mappings, response inhibition can become automatized with practice. What is learned is less clear, even though this has important theoretical and practical implications. A recent analysis indicates that stimuli can become associated with a stop signal or with a stop goal. Furthermore, expectancy may play an important role. Previous studies that have used stop or no-go signals to manipulate stimulus-stop learning cannot distinguish between stimulus-signal and stimulus-goal associations, and expectancy has not been measured properly. In the present study, participants performed a task that combined features of the go/no-go task and the stop-signal task in which the stop-signal rule changed at the beginning of each block. The go and stop signals were superimposed over 40 task-irrelevant images. Our results show that participants can learn direct associations between images and the stop goal without mediation via the stop signal. Exposure to the image-stop associations influenced task performance during training, and expectancies measured following task completion or measured within the task. But, despite this, we found an effect of stimulus-stop learning on test performance only when the task increased the task-relevance of the images. This could indicate that the influence of stimulus-stop learning on go performance is strongly influenced by attention to both task-relevant and task-irrelevant stimulus features. More generally, our findings suggest a strong interplay between automatic and controlled processes.
Keywords
RESPONSE-INHIBITION, SIGNAL PARADIGM, COGNITIVE CONTROL, ALCOHOL-CONSUMPTION, TASK BINDINGS, EVENT FILES, GO/NO-GO, DRUG-USE, STIMULUS, IMPULSIVITY, response inhibition, attention, automaticity, associative learning, expectancy

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MLA
Best, Maisy et al. “Should I Stop or Should I Go? The Role of Associations and Expectancies.” JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-HUMAN PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE 42.1 (2016): 115–137. Print.
APA
Best, M., Lawrence, N. S., Logan, G. D., McLaren, I. P. L., & Verbruggen, F. (2016). Should I stop or should I go? The role of associations and expectancies. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-HUMAN PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE, 42(1), 115–137.
Chicago author-date
Best, Maisy, Natalia S. Lawrence, Gordon D. Logan, Ian P. L. McLaren, and Frederick Verbruggen. 2016. “Should I Stop or Should I Go? The Role of Associations and Expectancies.” Journal of Experimental Psychology-human Perception and Performance 42 (1): 115–137.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Best, Maisy, Natalia S. Lawrence, Gordon D. Logan, Ian P. L. McLaren, and Frederick Verbruggen. 2016. “Should I Stop or Should I Go? The Role of Associations and Expectancies.” Journal of Experimental Psychology-human Perception and Performance 42 (1): 115–137.
Vancouver
1.
Best M, Lawrence NS, Logan GD, McLaren IPL, Verbruggen F. Should I stop or should I go? The role of associations and expectancies. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-HUMAN PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE. Washington: Amer Psychological Assoc; 2016;42(1):115–37.
IEEE
[1]
M. Best, N. S. Lawrence, G. D. Logan, I. P. L. McLaren, and F. Verbruggen, “Should I stop or should I go? The role of associations and expectancies,” JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-HUMAN PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 115–137, 2016.
@article{8534930,
  abstract     = {{Following exposure to consistent stimulus-stop mappings, response inhibition can become automatized with practice. What is learned is less clear, even though this has important theoretical and practical implications. A recent analysis indicates that stimuli can become associated with a stop signal or with a stop goal. Furthermore, expectancy may play an important role. Previous studies that have used stop or no-go signals to manipulate stimulus-stop learning cannot distinguish between stimulus-signal and stimulus-goal associations, and expectancy has not been measured properly. In the present study, participants performed a task that combined features of the go/no-go task and the stop-signal task in which the stop-signal rule changed at the beginning of each block. The go and stop signals were superimposed over 40 task-irrelevant images. Our results show that participants can learn direct associations between images and the stop goal without mediation via the stop signal. Exposure to the image-stop associations influenced task performance during training, and expectancies measured following task completion or measured within the task. But, despite this, we found an effect of stimulus-stop learning on test performance only when the task increased the task-relevance of the images. This could indicate that the influence of stimulus-stop learning on go performance is strongly influenced by attention to both task-relevant and task-irrelevant stimulus features. More generally, our findings suggest a strong interplay between automatic and controlled processes.}},
  author       = {{Best, Maisy and Lawrence, Natalia S. and Logan, Gordon D. and McLaren, Ian P. L. and Verbruggen, Frederick}},
  issn         = {{0096-1523}},
  journal      = {{JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-HUMAN PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE}},
  keywords     = {{RESPONSE-INHIBITION,SIGNAL PARADIGM,COGNITIVE CONTROL,ALCOHOL-CONSUMPTION,TASK BINDINGS,EVENT FILES,GO/NO-GO,DRUG-USE,STIMULUS,IMPULSIVITY,response inhibition,attention,automaticity,associative learning,expectancy}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{1}},
  pages        = {{115--137}},
  publisher    = {{Amer Psychological Assoc}},
  title        = {{Should I stop or should I go? The role of associations and expectancies}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xhp0000116}},
  volume       = {{42}},
  year         = {{2016}},
}

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