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Development of between-trial response strategy adjustments in a continuous action control task : a cross-sectional study

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Abstract
Response strategies are constantly adjusted in ever-changing environments. According to many researchers, this involves executive control. This study examined how children (aged 4-11 years) and young adults (aged 18-21 years) adjusted response strategies in a continuous action control task. Participants needed to move a stimulus to a target location, but on a minority of the trials (change trials) the target location changed. When this happened, participants needed to change their movement. We examined how performance was influenced by the properties of the previous trial. We found that no-change performance was impaired, but change performance was improved, when a change signal was presented on the previous trial. Extra analyses revealed that the between-trial effects on no-change trials were not influenced by the repetition of the previous stimulus. Combined, these findings provide support for the idea that response strategies were adjusted on a trial-by-trial basis. Importantly, we observed large age-related differences in overall change and no-change latencies but observed no differences in response strategy adjustments. This is consistent with findings obtained with other paradigms and suggests that adjustment mechanisms mature at a faster rate than other "executive" action control mechanisms. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keywords
STOP-SIGNAL PARADIGM, COGNITIVE CONTROL, INHIBIT THOUGHT, ERROR, CONFLICT, ABILITY, MOVEMENTS, MODEL, SUPPRESSION, BEHAVIOR, Executive control, Response strategies, Between-trial adjustments, Development

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Chicago
Verbruggen, Frederick, and Rossy McLaren. 2017. “Development of Between-trial Response Strategy Adjustments in a Continuous Action Control Task : a Cross-sectional Study.” Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 162: 39–57.
APA
Verbruggen, Frederick, & McLaren, R. (2017). Development of between-trial response strategy adjustments in a continuous action control task : a cross-sectional study. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL CHILD PSYCHOLOGY, 162, 39–57.
Vancouver
1.
Verbruggen F, McLaren R. Development of between-trial response strategy adjustments in a continuous action control task : a cross-sectional study. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL CHILD PSYCHOLOGY. New york: Elsevier Science Inc; 2017;162:39–57.
MLA
Verbruggen, Frederick, and Rossy McLaren. “Development of Between-trial Response Strategy Adjustments in a Continuous Action Control Task : a Cross-sectional Study.” JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL CHILD PSYCHOLOGY 162 (2017): 39–57. Print.
@article{8534882,
  abstract     = {Response strategies are constantly adjusted in ever-changing environments. According to many researchers, this involves executive control. This study examined how children (aged 4-11 years) and young adults (aged 18-21 years) adjusted response strategies in a continuous action control task. Participants needed to move a stimulus to a target location, but on a minority of the trials (change trials) the target location changed. When this happened, participants needed to change their movement. We examined how performance was influenced by the properties of the previous trial. We found that no-change performance was impaired, but change performance was improved, when a change signal was presented on the previous trial. Extra analyses revealed that the between-trial effects on no-change trials were not influenced by the repetition of the previous stimulus. Combined, these findings provide support for the idea that response strategies were adjusted on a trial-by-trial basis. Importantly, we observed large age-related differences in overall change and no-change latencies but observed no differences in response strategy adjustments. This is consistent with findings obtained with other paradigms and suggests that adjustment mechanisms mature at a faster rate than other "executive" action control mechanisms. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.},
  author       = {Verbruggen, Frederick and McLaren, Rossy},
  issn         = {0022-0965},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL CHILD PSYCHOLOGY},
  keywords     = {STOP-SIGNAL PARADIGM,COGNITIVE CONTROL,INHIBIT THOUGHT,ERROR,CONFLICT,ABILITY,MOVEMENTS,MODEL,SUPPRESSION,BEHAVIOR,Executive control,Response strategies,Between-trial adjustments,Development},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {39--57},
  publisher    = {Elsevier Science Inc},
  title        = {Development of between-trial response strategy adjustments in a continuous action control task : a cross-sectional study},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2017.05.002},
  volume       = {162},
  year         = {2017},
}

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