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'Beyond the box' : a comprehensive study of sexist, homophobic, and transphobic attitudes among the Belgian population

Myrte Dierckx (UGent) , Petra Meier and Joz Motmans (UGent)
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Abstract
While various studies have examined sexist, homophobic, lesbophobic, biphobic, and transphobic attitudes, no comprehensive research has yet combined all of these attitudes in all of their dimensions (cognitive beliefs, affect, and behaviour). Furthermore, most previous studies have failed to take the influences of respondents’ sexual orientation and gender identity into consideration in their analyses. The Beyond the Box survey, conducted in Belgium in 2013, employed a holistic research design that included various attitude scales and background variables, such as sexual orientation, gender identity, gender role, and sex assigned at birth. In order to attract enough participants from gender and sexual minority groups, an online convenience sampling method was used. In total, 5,624 respondents living in Belgium participated in the study. The findings allow us, firstly, to distinguish intersections between social dominance, genderism, sexism, homophobia, and transphobia; and background variables which surpass traditional social, economic, and demographic variables. Secondly, the results show that, despite the anti-discrimination laws and equality policies that have evolved in Belgium in recent decades, sexist, homophobic, and transphobic prejudices remain widespread and are rooted in rigid gender belief systems. The study also indicates that, in order to create more positive attitudes towards sexual and gender minorities, we must start by addressing heteronormative and rigidly dualistic gender beliefs.
Keywords
sexism, homophobia, transphobia, gender identity, sexual orientation, survey

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MLA
Dierckx, Myrte, et al. “’Beyond the Box’ : A Comprehensive Study of Sexist, Homophobic, and Transphobic Attitudes among the Belgian Population.” DIGEST. JOURNAL OF DIVERSITY AND GENDER STUDIES, vol. 4, no. 1–2, 2017, pp. 5–34.
APA
Dierckx, M., Meier, P., & Motmans, J. (2017). ’Beyond the box’ : a comprehensive study of sexist, homophobic, and transphobic attitudes among the Belgian population. DIGEST. JOURNAL OF DIVERSITY AND GENDER STUDIES, 4(1–2), 5–34.
Chicago author-date
Dierckx, Myrte, Petra Meier, and Joz Motmans. 2017. “’Beyond the Box’ : A Comprehensive Study of Sexist, Homophobic, and Transphobic Attitudes among the Belgian Population.” DIGEST. JOURNAL OF DIVERSITY AND GENDER STUDIES 4 (1–2): 5–34.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Dierckx, Myrte, Petra Meier, and Joz Motmans. 2017. “’Beyond the Box’ : A Comprehensive Study of Sexist, Homophobic, and Transphobic Attitudes among the Belgian Population.” DIGEST. JOURNAL OF DIVERSITY AND GENDER STUDIES 4 (1–2): 5–34.
Vancouver
1.
Dierckx M, Meier P, Motmans J. ’Beyond the box’ : a comprehensive study of sexist, homophobic, and transphobic attitudes among the Belgian population. DIGEST JOURNAL OF DIVERSITY AND GENDER STUDIES. 2017;4(1–2):5–34.
IEEE
[1]
M. Dierckx, P. Meier, and J. Motmans, “’Beyond the box’ : a comprehensive study of sexist, homophobic, and transphobic attitudes among the Belgian population,” DIGEST. JOURNAL OF DIVERSITY AND GENDER STUDIES, vol. 4, no. 1–2, pp. 5–34, 2017.
@article{8534713,
  abstract     = {{While various studies have examined sexist, homophobic, lesbophobic, biphobic, and transphobic attitudes, no comprehensive research has yet combined all of these attitudes in all of their dimensions (cognitive beliefs, affect, and behaviour). Furthermore, most previous studies have failed to take the influences of respondents’ sexual orientation and gender identity into consideration in their analyses. The Beyond the Box survey, conducted in Belgium in 2013, employed a holistic research design that included various attitude scales and background variables, such as sexual orientation, gender identity, gender role, and sex assigned at birth. In order to attract enough participants from gender and sexual minority groups, an online convenience sampling method was used. In total, 5,624 respondents living in Belgium participated in the study. The findings allow us, firstly, to distinguish intersections between social dominance, genderism, sexism, homophobia, and transphobia; and background variables which surpass traditional social, economic, and demographic variables. Secondly, the results show that, despite the anti-discrimination laws and equality policies that have evolved in Belgium in recent decades, sexist, homophobic, and transphobic prejudices remain widespread and are rooted in rigid gender belief systems. The study also indicates that, in order to create more positive attitudes towards sexual and gender minorities, we must start by addressing heteronormative and rigidly dualistic gender beliefs.}},
  author       = {{Dierckx, Myrte and Meier, Petra and Motmans, Joz}},
  isbn         = {{9789461652256}},
  issn         = {{2593-0273}},
  journal      = {{DIGEST. JOURNAL OF DIVERSITY AND GENDER STUDIES}},
  keywords     = {{sexism,homophobia,transphobia,gender identity,sexual orientation,survey}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{1-2}},
  pages        = {{5--34}},
  title        = {{'Beyond the box' : a comprehensive study of sexist, homophobic, and transphobic attitudes among the Belgian population}},
  volume       = {{4}},
  year         = {{2017}},
}