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Grain yield observations constrain cropland CO2 fluxes over Europe

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Abstract
Carbon exchange over croplands plays an important role in the European carbon cycle over daily to seasonal time scales. A better description of this exchange in terrestrial biosphere models -- most of which currently treat crops as unmanaged grasslands -- is needed to improve atmospheric CO~2~ simulations. In the framework we present here, we model gross European cropland CO~2~ fluxes with a crop growth model constrained by grain yield observations. Our approach follows a two-step procedure. In the first step, we calculate day-to-day crop carbon fluxes and pools with the WOrld FOod STudies (WOFOST) model. A scaling factor of crop growth is optimised regionally by minimizing the final grain carbon pool difference to crop yield observations from the Statistical Office of the European Union. In a second step, we re-run our WOFOST model for the full European 25 x 25 km gridded domain using the optimized scaling factors. We combine our optimized crop CO~2~ fluxes with a simple soil respiration model to obtain the net cropland CO~2~ exchange. We assess our model’s ability to represent cropland CO~2~ exchange using 40 years of observations at 7 European FluxNet sites and compare it with carbon fluxes produced by a typical terrestrial biosphere model. We conclude that our new model framework provides a more realistic and strongly observation-driven estimate of carbon exchange over European croplands. Its products will be made available to the scientific community through the ICOS Carbon Portal, and serve as a new cropland component in the CarbonTracker Europe inverse model.
Keywords
ZEA-MAYS L., DATA ASSIMILATION, SOIL RESPIRATION, CARBON EXCHANGE, GREEN-REVOLUTION, CLIMATE-CHANGE, WATER-STRESS, WINTER-WHEAT, ERA-INTERIM, MAIZE

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MLA
Combe, Marie, Allard JW de Wit, Jordi Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, et al. “Grain Yield Observations Constrain Cropland CO2 Fluxes over Europe.” JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-BIOGEOSCIENCES 122.12 (2017): 3238–3259. Print.
APA
Combe, M., de Wit, A. J., Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J., van der Molen, M. K., Magliulo, V., & Peters, W. (2017). Grain yield observations constrain cropland CO2 fluxes over Europe. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-BIOGEOSCIENCES, 122(12), 3238–3259.
Chicago author-date
Combe, Marie, Allard JW de Wit, Jordi Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, Michiel K van der Molen, Vincenzo Magliulo, and Wouter Peters. 2017. “Grain Yield Observations Constrain Cropland CO2 Fluxes over Europe.” Journal of Geophysical Research-biogeosciences 122 (12): 3238–3259.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Combe, Marie, Allard JW de Wit, Jordi Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, Michiel K van der Molen, Vincenzo Magliulo, and Wouter Peters. 2017. “Grain Yield Observations Constrain Cropland CO2 Fluxes over Europe.” Journal of Geophysical Research-biogeosciences 122 (12): 3238–3259.
Vancouver
1.
Combe M, de Wit AJ, Vilà-Guerau de Arellano J, van der Molen MK, Magliulo V, Peters W. Grain yield observations constrain cropland CO2 fluxes over Europe. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-BIOGEOSCIENCES. 2017;122(12):3238–59.
IEEE
[1]
M. Combe, A. J. de Wit, J. Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, M. K. van der Molen, V. Magliulo, and W. Peters, “Grain yield observations constrain cropland CO2 fluxes over Europe,” JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-BIOGEOSCIENCES, vol. 122, no. 12, pp. 3238–3259, 2017.
@article{8534517,
  abstract     = {Carbon exchange over croplands plays an important role in the European carbon cycle over daily to seasonal time scales. A better description of this exchange in terrestrial biosphere models -- most of which currently treat crops as unmanaged grasslands -- is needed to improve atmospheric CO~2~ simulations.
In the framework we present here, we model gross European cropland CO~2~ fluxes with a crop growth model constrained by grain yield observations. Our approach follows a two-step procedure. In the first step, we calculate day-to-day crop carbon fluxes and pools with the WOrld FOod STudies (WOFOST) model. A scaling factor of crop growth is optimised regionally by minimizing the final grain carbon pool difference to crop yield observations from the Statistical Office of the European Union. In a second step, we re-run our WOFOST model for the full European 25 x 25 km gridded domain using the optimized scaling factors. We combine our optimized crop CO~2~ fluxes with a simple soil respiration model to obtain the net cropland CO~2~ exchange. 
We assess our model’s ability to represent cropland CO~2~ exchange using 40 years of observations at 7 European FluxNet sites and compare it with carbon fluxes produced by a typical terrestrial biosphere model. We conclude that our new model framework provides a more realistic and strongly observation-driven estimate of carbon exchange over European croplands. Its products will be made available to the scientific community through the ICOS Carbon Portal, and serve as a new cropland component in the CarbonTracker Europe inverse model.},
  author       = {Combe, Marie and de Wit, Allard JW and Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, Jordi and van der Molen, Michiel K and Magliulo, Vincenzo and Peters, Wouter},
  issn         = {2169-8953},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-BIOGEOSCIENCES},
  keywords     = {ZEA-MAYS L.,DATA ASSIMILATION,SOIL RESPIRATION,CARBON EXCHANGE,GREEN-REVOLUTION,CLIMATE-CHANGE,WATER-STRESS,WINTER-WHEAT,ERA-INTERIM,MAIZE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {12},
  pages        = {3238--3259},
  title        = {Grain yield observations constrain cropland CO2 fluxes over Europe},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2017JG003937},
  volume       = {122},
  year         = {2017},
}

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