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Can non-invasively determined muscle typology predict fatigue and recovery profile?

Eline Lievens (UGent) , Tine Bex (UGent) and Wim Derave (UGent)
Author
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Abstract
Introduction : It is well-known that human fast-twitch (FT) fibers are faster fatigued and require a longer recovery period, compared to slow-twitch (ST) fibers. The transfer of this knowledge to the recovery from exhaustive training and matches in athletes with a diverging muscle typology, is hampered by the invasive nature of the current evaluation of the muscle fiber type composition by biopsies. Recently, muscle carnosine quantification by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) was developed as a new non-invasive estimation method (Baguet et al., 2011). The aim of this study was to investigate if subjects with predominantly FT fibers are characterized with a more pronounced Wingate-induced fatigue and delayed recovery compared to the ones with predominantly ST fibers. Methods : 21 male potential participants were scanned by 1H-MRS according to Baguet et al. (2011) and were included if their gastrocnemius muscle carnosine concentration was <0.5 (ST) or >0.5 (FT) Z-score compared to the reference population. So far, 6 subjects with mainly FT (VO2max: 4.0±0.6 L/min) and 6 subjects with mainly ST typology (VO2max: 4.3±0.2 L/min) underwent the test protocol, consisting of three 30’’ all-out Wingate tests on a Cyclus ergometer, interspersed with 4 min of rest. Before and 10, 20, 30, 50, 80, 120, 160 and 300 min after the repeated Wingates, knee extension force was evaluated by isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and electrical femoral nerve stimulation (100Hz, 10Hz, and twitch; Digitimer, DS7A) and capillary blood samples were taken for lactate, pH and HCO3- determination. The study group will be further expanded before the congress towards adequate statistical power, so only % differences are currently reported. Results and conclusions : Subjects with FT typology had larger disturbances and slower recovery of blood parameters compared to ST subjects. Although both groups performed the same mean power across all Wingates, the fatigue index (FI) within each Wingate and across Wingate tests was higher in FT (FI within 3 Wingates: 51±5%; FI across 3 Wingates: 18±10%) versus ST subjects (36±5% and 7±6%, respectively). For MVC, 20 min after the Wingates, the % of initial force was 94±8% in ST and 75±9% in FT, and even after 2 hours a difference of 11% in recovery could be found between both groups. Similar findings were observed for electrically-stimulated knee extension force. Our findings suggest that MR-based non-invasive estimation of muscle fiber type composition can predict the extent of fatigue and the time profile of force recovery following repeated maximal all-out exercise. This may have important applications as a non-invasive tool for individualizing advice for muscle recovery from intensive training in sports. References Baguet et al. (2011). PLoS ONE, 6, e21956
Keywords
Neuromuscular Physiology, Muscle fiber type composition, Fatigue, Individualised training

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Chicago
Lievens, Eline, Tine Bex, and Wim Derave. 2017. “Can Non-invasively Determined Muscle Typology Predict Fatigue and Recovery Profile?” In Book of Abstracts : 22nd Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science. European College of Sport Science (ECSS).
APA
Lievens, Eline, Bex, T., & Derave, W. (2017). Can non-invasively determined muscle typology predict fatigue and recovery profile? Book of abstracts : 22nd annual congress of the European College of Sport Science. Presented at the 22nd Annual congress of the European College of Sport Science (ECSS): Sport science in a metropolitan area, European College of Sport Science (ECSS).
Vancouver
1.
Lievens E, Bex T, Derave W. Can non-invasively determined muscle typology predict fatigue and recovery profile? Book of abstracts : 22nd annual congress of the European College of Sport Science. European College of Sport Science (ECSS); 2017.
MLA
Lievens, Eline, Tine Bex, and Wim Derave. “Can Non-invasively Determined Muscle Typology Predict Fatigue and Recovery Profile?” Book of Abstracts : 22nd Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science. European College of Sport Science (ECSS), 2017. Print.
@inproceedings{8534508,
  abstract     = {Introduction : It is well-known that human fast-twitch (FT) fibers are faster fatigued and require a longer recovery period, compared to slow-twitch (ST) fibers. The transfer of this knowledge to the recovery from exhaustive training and matches in athletes with a diverging muscle typology, is hampered by the invasive nature of the current evaluation of the muscle fiber type composition by biopsies. Recently, muscle carnosine quantification by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) was developed as a new non-invasive estimation method (Baguet et al., 2011). The aim of this study was to investigate if subjects with predominantly FT fibers are characterized with a more pronounced Wingate-induced fatigue and delayed recovery compared to the ones with predominantly ST fibers.
Methods : 21 male potential participants were scanned by 1H-MRS according to Baguet et al. (2011) and were included if their gastrocnemius muscle carnosine concentration was {\textlangle}0.5 (ST) or  {\textrangle}0.5 (FT) Z-score compared to the reference population. So far, 6 subjects with mainly FT (VO2max: 4.0{\textpm}0.6 L/min) and 6 subjects with mainly ST typology (VO2max: 4.3{\textpm}0.2 L/min) underwent the test protocol, consisting of three 30{\textquoteright}{\textquoteright} all-out Wingate tests on a Cyclus ergometer, interspersed with 4 min of rest. Before and 10, 20, 30, 50, 80, 120, 160 and 300 min after the repeated Wingates, knee extension force was evaluated by isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and electrical femoral nerve stimulation (100Hz, 10Hz, and twitch; Digitimer, DS7A) and capillary blood samples were taken for lactate, pH and HCO3- determination. The study group will be further expanded before the congress towards adequate statistical power, so only \% differences are currently reported.
Results and conclusions : Subjects with FT typology had larger disturbances and slower recovery of blood parameters compared to ST subjects. Although both groups performed the same mean power across all Wingates, the fatigue index (FI) within each Wingate and across Wingate tests was higher in FT (FI within 3 Wingates: 51{\textpm}5\%; FI across 3 Wingates: 18{\textpm}10\%) versus ST subjects (36{\textpm}5\% and 7{\textpm}6\%, respectively). For MVC, 20 min after the Wingates, the \% of initial force was 94{\textpm}8\% in ST and 75{\textpm}9\% in FT, and even after 2 hours a difference of 11\% in recovery could be found between both groups. Similar findings were observed for electrically-stimulated knee extension force. Our findings suggest that MR-based non-invasive estimation of muscle fiber type composition can predict the extent of fatigue and the time profile of force recovery following repeated maximal all-out exercise. This may have important applications as a non-invasive tool for individualizing advice for muscle recovery from intensive training in sports. 
References
Baguet et al. (2011). PLoS ONE, 6, e21956},
  author       = {Lievens, Eline and Bex, Tine and Derave, Wim},
  booktitle    = {Book of abstracts : 22nd annual congress of the European College of Sport Science},
  keyword      = {Neuromuscular Physiology,Muscle fiber type composition,Fatigue,Individualised training},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {MetropolisRuhr, Germany},
  publisher    = {European College of Sport Science (ECSS)},
  title        = {Can non-invasively determined muscle typology predict fatigue and recovery profile?},
  year         = {2017},
}