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Anaesthesia, not number of sessions, influences the magnitude and duration of an aHF-rTMS in dogs

Robrecht Dockx (UGent) , Kathelijne Peremans (UGent) , Lise Vlerick (UGent) , Nick Van Laeken (UGent) , Jimmy Saunders (UGent) , Ingeborgh Polis (UGent) , Filip De Vos (UGent) and Chris Baeken (UGent)
(2017) PLOS ONE. 12(9).
Author
Organization
Project
The integrative neuroscience of behavioral control (Neuroscience)
Abstract
Background : Currently, the rat has been a useful animal model in brain stimulation research. Nevertheless, extrapolating results from rodent repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) research to humans contains several hurdles. This suggests the desperate need for a large animal model in translational rTMS research. The dog would be a valid choice, not only due to the fact that humans and dogs share a neurophysiological background, but a similar neuropathological background as well. Hypothesis : In order to evaluate the feasibility of the canine rTMS animal model, this study aimed to evaluate the neurophysiological response in dogs on a, clinically used, accelerated high frequency (aHF) rTMS protocol. This aHF-rTMS (20 Hz) protocol was performed under anaesthesia or sedation and either 20 sessions or 5 sessions were given to each dog. Methods : 21 healthy dogs were randomly subjected to one of the four aHF-rTMS protocols (1 sham and 3 active protocols). For each dog, the perfusion indices (PI), of a [99m Tc] HMPAO scan at 4 time points, for the left frontal cortex (stimulation target) were calculated for each protocol. Results : Concerning sham stimulation, the average PI remained at the baseline level. The main result was the presence of a direct transitory increase in rCBF at the stimulation site, both under anaesthesia and sedation. Nevertheless the measured increase in rCBF was higher but shorter duration under sedation. The magnitude of this increase was not influenced by number of sessions. No changes in rCBF were found in remote brain regions. Conclusion : This study shows that, despite the influence of anaesthesia and sedation, comparable and clinically relevant effects on the rCBF can be obtained in dogs. Since less methodological hurdles have to be overcome and comparable results can be obtained, it would be acceptable to put the dog forward as an alternative translational rTMS animal model.
Keywords
TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION, CEREBRAL-BLOOD-FLOW, CORTICAL EFFECTIVE CONNECTIVITY, TREATMENT-RESISTANT DEPRESSION, EMISSION COMPUTED-TOMOGRAPHY, ACCELERATED HF-RTMS, MAJOR DEPRESSION, RAT-BRAIN, PREFRONTAL CORTEX, EVOKED-POTENTIALS

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Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

Chicago
Dockx, Robrecht, Kathelijne Peremans, Lise Vlerick, Nick Van Laeken, Jimmy Saunders, Ingeborgh Polis, Filip De Vos, and Chris Baeken. 2017. “Anaesthesia, Not Number of Sessions, Influences the Magnitude and Duration of an aHF-rTMS in Dogs.” Plos One 12 (9).
APA
Dockx, Robrecht, Peremans, K., Vlerick, L., Van Laeken, N., Saunders, J., Polis, I., De Vos, F., et al. (2017). Anaesthesia, not number of sessions, influences the magnitude and duration of an aHF-rTMS in dogs. PLOS ONE, 12(9).
Vancouver
1.
Dockx R, Peremans K, Vlerick L, Van Laeken N, Saunders J, Polis I, et al. Anaesthesia, not number of sessions, influences the magnitude and duration of an aHF-rTMS in dogs. PLOS ONE. 2017;12(9).
MLA
Dockx, Robrecht, Kathelijne Peremans, Lise Vlerick, et al. “Anaesthesia, Not Number of Sessions, Influences the Magnitude and Duration of an aHF-rTMS in Dogs.” PLOS ONE 12.9 (2017): n. pag. Print.
@article{8534404,
  abstract     = {Background : Currently, the rat has been a useful animal model in brain stimulation research. Nevertheless, extrapolating results from rodent repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) research to humans contains several hurdles. This suggests the desperate need for a large animal model in translational rTMS research. The dog would be a valid choice, not only due to the fact that humans and dogs share a neurophysiological background, but a similar neuropathological background as well. 
Hypothesis : In order to evaluate the feasibility of the canine rTMS animal model, this study aimed to evaluate the neurophysiological response in dogs on a, clinically used, accelerated high frequency (aHF) rTMS protocol. This aHF-rTMS (20 Hz) protocol was performed under anaesthesia or sedation and either 20 sessions or 5 sessions were given to each dog. 
Methods : 21 healthy dogs were randomly subjected to one of the four aHF-rTMS protocols (1 sham and 3 active protocols). For each dog, the perfusion indices (PI), of a [99m Tc] HMPAO scan at 4 time points, for the left frontal cortex (stimulation target) were calculated for each protocol. 
Results : Concerning sham stimulation, the average PI remained at the baseline level. The main result was the presence of a direct transitory increase in rCBF at the stimulation site, both under anaesthesia and sedation. Nevertheless the measured increase in rCBF was higher but shorter duration under sedation. The magnitude of this increase was not influenced by number of sessions. No changes in rCBF were found in remote brain regions. 
Conclusion : This study shows that, despite the influence of anaesthesia and sedation, comparable and clinically relevant effects on the rCBF can be obtained in dogs. Since less methodological hurdles have to be overcome and comparable results can be obtained, it would be acceptable to put the dog forward as an alternative translational rTMS animal model.},
  articleno    = {e0185362},
  author       = {Dockx, Robrecht and Peremans, Kathelijne and Vlerick, Lise and Van Laeken, Nick and Saunders, Jimmy and Polis, Ingeborgh and De Vos, Filip and Baeken, Chris},
  issn         = {1932-6203},
  journal      = {PLOS ONE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {9},
  pages        = {18},
  title        = {Anaesthesia, not number of sessions, influences the magnitude and duration of an aHF-rTMS in dogs},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0185362},
  volume       = {12},
  year         = {2017},
}

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