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Side-by-side secretion of Late Palaeozoic diverged courtship pheromones in an aquatic salamander

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Abstract
Males of the advanced salamanders (Salamandroidea) attain internal fertilization without a copulatory organ by depositing a spermatophore on the substrate in the environment, which females subsequently take up with their cloaca. The aquatically reproducing modern Eurasian newts (Salamandridae) have taken this to extremes, because most species do not display close physical contact during courtship, but instead largely rely on females following the male track at spermatophore deposition. Although pheromones have been widely assumed to represent an important aspect of male courtship, molecules able to induce the female following behaviour that is the prelude for successful insemination have not yet been identified. Here, we show that uncleaved sodefrin precursor-like factor (SPF) protein pheromones are sufficient to elicit such behaviour in female palmate newts (Lissotriton helveticus). Combined transcriptomic and proteomic evidence shows that males simultaneously tail-fan multiple ca 20 kDa glycosylated SPF proteins during courtship. Notably, molecular dating estimates show that the diversification of these proteins already started in the late Palaeozoic, about 300 million years ago. Our study thus not only extends the use of uncleaved SPF proteins outside terrestrially reproducing plethodontid salamanders, but also reveals one of the oldest vertebrate pheromone systems.
Keywords
evolution, phylogeny, gene duplications, amphibians, protein pheromones, TRITURUS-VULGARIS-VULGARIS, SMOOTH NEWT, FEMALE RECEPTIVITY, TERRESTRIAL SALAMANDER, GLOBAL PATTERNS, CLOACAL GLANDS, SEX-PHEROMONE, CHEMICAL CUES, RNA-SEQ, AMPHIBIANS

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Chicago
Van Bocxlaer, Ines, Dag Treer, Margo Maex, Wim Vandebergh, Sunita Janssenswillen, Gwij Stegen, Philippe Kok, et al. 2015. “Side-by-side Secretion of Late Palaeozoic Diverged Courtship Pheromones in an Aquatic Salamander.” Proceedings of the Royal Society B-biological Sciences 282 (1803).
APA
Van Bocxlaer, Ines, Treer, D., Maex, M., Vandebergh, W., Janssenswillen, S., Stegen, G., Kok, P., et al. (2015). Side-by-side secretion of Late Palaeozoic diverged courtship pheromones in an aquatic salamander. PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, 282(1803).
Vancouver
1.
Van Bocxlaer I, Treer D, Maex M, Vandebergh W, Janssenswillen S, Stegen G, et al. Side-by-side secretion of Late Palaeozoic diverged courtship pheromones in an aquatic salamander. PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 2015;282(1803).
MLA
Van Bocxlaer, Ines, Dag Treer, Margo Maex, et al. “Side-by-side Secretion of Late Palaeozoic Diverged Courtship Pheromones in an Aquatic Salamander.” PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 282.1803 (2015): n. pag. Print.
@article{8534201,
  abstract     = {Males of the advanced salamanders (Salamandroidea) attain internal fertilization without a copulatory organ by depositing a spermatophore on the substrate in the environment, which females subsequently take up with their cloaca. The aquatically reproducing modern Eurasian newts (Salamandridae) have taken this to extremes, because most species do not display close physical contact during courtship, but instead largely rely on females following the male track at spermatophore deposition. Although pheromones have been widely assumed to represent an important aspect of male courtship, molecules able to induce the female following behaviour that is the prelude for successful insemination have not yet been identified. Here, we show that uncleaved sodefrin precursor-like factor (SPF) protein pheromones are sufficient to elicit such behaviour in female palmate newts (Lissotriton helveticus). Combined transcriptomic and proteomic evidence shows that males simultaneously tail-fan multiple ca 20 kDa glycosylated SPF proteins during courtship. Notably, molecular dating estimates show that the diversification of these proteins already started in the late Palaeozoic, about 300 million years ago. Our study thus not only extends the use of uncleaved SPF proteins outside terrestrially reproducing plethodontid salamanders, but also reveals one of the oldest vertebrate pheromone systems.},
  articleno    = {20142960},
  author       = {Van Bocxlaer, Ines and Treer, Dag and Maex, Margo and Vandebergh, Wim and Janssenswillen, Sunita and Stegen, Gwij and Kok, Philippe and Willaert, Bert and Matthijs, Severine and Martens, Erik and Mortier, Anneleen and de Greve, Henri and Proost, Paul and Bossuyt, Franky},
  issn         = {0962-8452},
  journal      = {PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1803},
  pages        = {9},
  title        = {Side-by-side secretion of Late Palaeozoic diverged courtship pheromones in an aquatic salamander},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2014.2960},
  volume       = {282},
  year         = {2015},
}

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