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Psychosocial risk factors in relation to other cardiovascular risk factors in coronary heart disease : results from the EUROASPIRE IV survey : a registry from the European Society of Cardiology

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Abstract
Background: Depression and anxiety are established psychosocial risk factors for coronary heart disease. Contemporary data on their prevalence and associations with other risk factors were evaluated as part of the EUROASPIRE IV survey. Design: The design of this study was cross-sectional. Methods: The study group consisted of 7589 patients from 24 European countries examined at a median of 1.4 years after hospitalisation due to coronary heart disease events. Depression and anxiety were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results: Symptoms of anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety score 8) were seen in 26.3% of participants and were more prevalent in women (39.4%) vs men (22.1%). Of the patients, 22.4% (30.6% of women and 19.8% of men) had symptoms of depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression score 8). Nevertheless, antidepressants and anti-anxiety medications were prescribed to only 2.4% of patients at hospital discharge, and 2.7% and 5.0% of patients, respectively, continued to take them at interview. Both anxiety and depression were associated with female gender, lower educational level and more sedentary lifestyle. Anxiety was more prevalent in younger age groups and depression rates increased with advancing age. Depression was positively associated with current smoking, central obesity and self-reported diabetes. A number of positive lifestyle changes reduced the odds of anxiety and depression. Conclusions: A substantial proportion of patients have anxiety and depression symptoms after coronary heart disease events but these conditions are undertreated. These disorders, especially depression, are associated with other risk factors, including educational level, sedentary lifestyle, smoking, unhealthy diet and reduced compliance with risk factor modification.
Keywords
Anxiety, cardiovascular risk, coronary artery disease, depression, ACUTE MYOCARDIAL-INFARCTION, DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS, CARDIAC REHABILITATION, PROGNOSTIC ASSOCIATION, METAANALYSIS, ANXIETY, MORTALITY, ADHERENCE, EVENTS, RECOMMENDATIONS

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MLA
Pogosova, Nana et al. “Psychosocial Risk Factors in Relation to Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Coronary Heart Disease : Results from the EUROASPIRE IV Survey : a Registry from the European Society of Cardiology.” EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PREVENTIVE CARDIOLOGY 24.13 (2017): 1371–1380. Print.
APA
Pogosova, N., Kotseva, K., De Bacquer, D., von Känel, R., De Smedt, D., Bruthans, J., & Dolzhenko, M. (2017). Psychosocial risk factors in relation to other cardiovascular risk factors in coronary heart disease : results from the EUROASPIRE IV survey : a registry from the European Society of Cardiology. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PREVENTIVE CARDIOLOGY, 24(13), 1371–1380.
Chicago author-date
Pogosova, Nana, Kornelia Kotseva, Dirk De Bacquer, Roland von Känel, Delphine De Smedt, Jan Bruthans, and Maryna Dolzhenko. 2017. “Psychosocial Risk Factors in Relation to Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Coronary Heart Disease : Results from the EUROASPIRE IV Survey : a Registry from the European Society of Cardiology.” European Journal of Preventive Cardiology 24 (13): 1371–1380.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Pogosova, Nana, Kornelia Kotseva, Dirk De Bacquer, Roland von Känel, Delphine De Smedt, Jan Bruthans, and Maryna Dolzhenko. 2017. “Psychosocial Risk Factors in Relation to Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Coronary Heart Disease : Results from the EUROASPIRE IV Survey : a Registry from the European Society of Cardiology.” European Journal of Preventive Cardiology 24 (13): 1371–1380.
Vancouver
1.
Pogosova N, Kotseva K, De Bacquer D, von Känel R, De Smedt D, Bruthans J, et al. Psychosocial risk factors in relation to other cardiovascular risk factors in coronary heart disease : results from the EUROASPIRE IV survey : a registry from the European Society of Cardiology. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PREVENTIVE CARDIOLOGY. 2017;24(13):1371–80.
IEEE
[1]
N. Pogosova et al., “Psychosocial risk factors in relation to other cardiovascular risk factors in coronary heart disease : results from the EUROASPIRE IV survey : a registry from the European Society of Cardiology,” EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PREVENTIVE CARDIOLOGY, vol. 24, no. 13, pp. 1371–1380, 2017.
@article{8533934,
  abstract     = {Background: Depression and anxiety are established psychosocial risk factors for coronary heart disease. Contemporary data on their prevalence and associations with other risk factors were evaluated as part of the EUROASPIRE IV survey. 
Design: The design of this study was cross-sectional. 
Methods: The study group consisted of 7589 patients from 24 European countries examined at a median of 1.4 years after hospitalisation due to coronary heart disease events. Depression and anxiety were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. 
Results: Symptoms of anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety score 8) were seen in 26.3% of participants and were more prevalent in women (39.4%) vs men (22.1%). Of the patients, 22.4% (30.6% of women and 19.8% of men) had symptoms of depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression score 8). Nevertheless, antidepressants and anti-anxiety medications were prescribed to only 2.4% of patients at hospital discharge, and 2.7% and 5.0% of patients, respectively, continued to take them at interview. Both anxiety and depression were associated with female gender, lower educational level and more sedentary lifestyle. Anxiety was more prevalent in younger age groups and depression rates increased with advancing age. Depression was positively associated with current smoking, central obesity and self-reported diabetes. A number of positive lifestyle changes reduced the odds of anxiety and depression. 
Conclusions: A substantial proportion of patients have anxiety and depression symptoms after coronary heart disease events but these conditions are undertreated. These disorders, especially depression, are associated with other risk factors, including educational level, sedentary lifestyle, smoking, unhealthy diet and reduced compliance with risk factor modification.},
  author       = {Pogosova, Nana and Kotseva, Kornelia and De Bacquer, Dirk and von Känel, Roland and De Smedt, Delphine and Bruthans, Jan and Dolzhenko, Maryna},
  issn         = {2047-4873},
  journal      = {EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PREVENTIVE CARDIOLOGY},
  keywords     = {Anxiety,cardiovascular risk,coronary artery disease,depression,ACUTE MYOCARDIAL-INFARCTION,DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS,CARDIAC REHABILITATION,PROGNOSTIC ASSOCIATION,METAANALYSIS,ANXIETY,MORTALITY,ADHERENCE,EVENTS,RECOMMENDATIONS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {13},
  pages        = {1371--1380},
  title        = {Psychosocial risk factors in relation to other cardiovascular risk factors in coronary heart disease : results from the EUROASPIRE IV survey : a registry from the European Society of Cardiology},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2047487317711334},
  volume       = {24},
  year         = {2017},
}

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