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Accumulation of uraemic toxins is reflected only partially by estimated GFR in paediatric patients with chronic kidney disease

(2018) PEDIATRIC NEPHROLOGY. 33(2). p.315-323
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Abstract
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in childhood is characterised by the accumulation of uraemic toxins resulting in a multisystem disorder that has a negative impact on quality of life. Childhood CKD is predominantly defined by a decrease in glomerular filtration rate, estimated (eGFR) by a single serum measurement of endogenous biomarkers, e.g. creatinine. The objective of this study was to evaluate how accurately eGFR predicts the concentration of uraemic toxins in a paediatric CKD cohort. In 65 children (10.8 [5.1; 14.7] years) with CKD (eGFR 44 [20; 64] mL/min/1.73 m(2)), serum concentrations were determined of small solutes (uric acid [UA], urea, symmetric dimethylarginine [SDMA], asymmetric dimethylarginine [ADMA]), middle molecules (beta 2-microglobulin [beta 2M], complement factor D [CfD]) and protein-bound solutes (p-cresylglucuronide [pCG], hippuric acid, indole acetic acid, indoxyl sulphate [IxS], p-cresylsulfate [pCS] and 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-furanpropionic acid [CMPF]). Spearman's correlation coefficients (r) were calculated to correlate uraemic toxin concentrations with three different eGFR equations, based on either serum creatinine or beta 2M. Updated Schwartz eGFR was correlated reasonably well with concentrations of creatinine (r = -0.98), urea (r(s) = -0.84), SDMA (r = -0.82) and middle molecules CfD and beta 2M (both r(s) = -0.90). In contrast, poor correlation coefficients were found for CMPF (r(s) = -0.32), UA (r(s) = -0.45), ADMA (r(s) = -0.47) and pCG (r(s) = -0.48). The other toxins, all protein-bound, had r(s) between -0.75 and -0.57. Comparable correlations were found between the three evaluated eGFR equations and uraemic toxin concentrations. This study demonstrates that eGFR poorly predicts concentrations of protein-bound uraemic toxins, UA and ADMA in childhood CKD. Therefore, eGFR only partially reflects the complexity of the accumulation pattern of uraemic toxins in childhood CKD.
Keywords
Chronic kidney disease, Child, Uremic toxins, Glomerular filtration rate, ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS, GLOMERULAR-FILTRATION-RATE, RESIDUAL RENAL-FUNCTION, P-CRESYL SULFATE, ASYMMETRIC DIMETHYLARGININE, INDOXYL SULFATE, SYMMETRIC DIMETHYLARGININE, CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE, HEMODIALYSIS-PATIENTS, RELATIVE CONTRIBUTION

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Chicago
Snauwaert, Evelien, Wim Van Biesen, Ann Raes, Els Holvoet, Griet Glorieux, Koen Van Hoeck, Maria Van Dyck, et al. 2018. “Accumulation of Uraemic Toxins Is Reflected Only Partially by Estimated GFR in Paediatric Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.” Pediatric Nephrology 33 (2): 315–323.
APA
Snauwaert, Evelien, Van Biesen, W., Raes, A., Holvoet, E., Glorieux, G., Van Hoeck, K., Van Dyck, M., et al. (2018). Accumulation of uraemic toxins is reflected only partially by estimated GFR in paediatric patients with chronic kidney disease. PEDIATRIC NEPHROLOGY, 33(2), 315–323.
Vancouver
1.
Snauwaert E, Van Biesen W, Raes A, Holvoet E, Glorieux G, Van Hoeck K, et al. Accumulation of uraemic toxins is reflected only partially by estimated GFR in paediatric patients with chronic kidney disease. PEDIATRIC NEPHROLOGY. 2018;33(2):315–23.
MLA
Snauwaert, Evelien, Wim Van Biesen, Ann Raes, et al. “Accumulation of Uraemic Toxins Is Reflected Only Partially by Estimated GFR in Paediatric Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.” PEDIATRIC NEPHROLOGY 33.2 (2018): 315–323. Print.
@article{8533822,
  abstract     = {Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in childhood is characterised by the accumulation of uraemic toxins resulting in a multisystem disorder that has a negative impact on quality of life. Childhood CKD is predominantly defined by a decrease in glomerular filtration rate, estimated (eGFR) by a single serum measurement of endogenous biomarkers, e.g. creatinine. The objective of this study was to evaluate how accurately eGFR predicts the concentration of uraemic toxins in a paediatric CKD cohort. 
In 65 children (10.8 [5.1; 14.7] years) with CKD (eGFR 44 [20; 64] mL/min/1.73 m(2)), serum concentrations were determined of small solutes (uric acid [UA], urea, symmetric dimethylarginine [SDMA], asymmetric dimethylarginine [ADMA]), middle molecules (beta 2-microglobulin [beta 2M], complement factor D [CfD]) and protein-bound solutes (p-cresylglucuronide [pCG], hippuric acid, indole acetic acid, indoxyl sulphate [IxS], p-cresylsulfate [pCS] and 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-furanpropionic acid [CMPF]). Spearman's correlation coefficients (r) were calculated to correlate uraemic toxin concentrations with three different eGFR equations, based on either serum creatinine or beta 2M. 
Updated Schwartz eGFR was correlated reasonably well with concentrations of creatinine (r = -0.98), urea (r(s) = -0.84), SDMA (r = -0.82) and middle molecules CfD and beta 2M (both r(s) = -0.90). In contrast, poor correlation coefficients were found for CMPF (r(s) = -0.32), UA (r(s) = -0.45), ADMA (r(s) = -0.47) and pCG (r(s) = -0.48). The other toxins, all protein-bound, had r(s) between -0.75 and -0.57. Comparable correlations were found between the three evaluated eGFR equations and uraemic toxin concentrations. 
This study demonstrates that eGFR poorly predicts concentrations of protein-bound uraemic toxins, UA and ADMA in childhood CKD. Therefore, eGFR only partially reflects the complexity of the accumulation pattern of uraemic toxins in childhood CKD.},
  author       = {Snauwaert, Evelien and Van Biesen, Wim and Raes, Ann and Holvoet, Els and Glorieux, Griet and Van Hoeck, Koen and Van Dyck, Maria and Godefroid, Nathalie and Vanholder, Raymond and Roels, Sanne and Vande Walle, Johan and Eloot, Sunny},
  issn         = {0931-041X},
  journal      = {PEDIATRIC NEPHROLOGY},
  keyword      = {Chronic kidney disease,Child,Uremic toxins,Glomerular filtration rate,ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS,GLOMERULAR-FILTRATION-RATE,RESIDUAL RENAL-FUNCTION,P-CRESYL SULFATE,ASYMMETRIC DIMETHYLARGININE,INDOXYL SULFATE,SYMMETRIC DIMETHYLARGININE,CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE,HEMODIALYSIS-PATIENTS,RELATIVE CONTRIBUTION},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {315--323},
  title        = {Accumulation of uraemic toxins is reflected only partially by estimated GFR in paediatric patients with chronic kidney disease},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-017-3802-5},
  volume       = {33},
  year         = {2018},
}

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