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Global, regional, and national under-5 mortality, adult mortality, age-specific mortality, and life expectancy, 1970-2016 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

(2017) LANCET. 390(10100). p.1084-1150
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Abstract
Background: Detailed assessments of mortality patterns, particularly age-specific mortality, represent a crucial input that enables health systems to target interventions to specific populations. Understanding how all-cause mortality has changed with respect to development status can identify exemplars for best practice. To accomplish this, the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) estimated age-specific and sex-specific all-cause mortality between 1970 and 2016 for 195 countries and territories and at the subnational level for the five countries with a population greater than 200 million in 2016. Methods: We have evaluated how well civil registration systems captured deaths using a set of demographic methods called death distribution methods for adults and from consideration of survey and census data for children younger than 5 years. We generated an overall assessment of completeness of registration of deaths by dividing registered deaths in each location-year by our estimate of all-age deaths generated from our overall estimation process. For 163 locations, including subnational units in countries with a population greater than 200 million with complete vital registration (VR) systems, our estimates were largely driven by the observed data, with corrections for small fluctuations in numbers and estimation for recent years where there were lags in data reporting (lags were variable by location, generally between 1 year and 6 years). For other locations, we took advantage of different data sources available to measure under-5 mortality rates (U5MR) using complete birth histories, summary birth histories, and incomplete VR with adjustments; we measured adult mortality rate (the probability of death in individuals aged 15-60 years) using adjusted incomplete VR, sibling histories, and household death recall. We used the U5MR and adult mortality rate, together with crude death rate due to HIV in the GBD model life table system, to estimate age-specific and sex-specific death rates for each location-year. Using various international databases, we identified fatal discontinuities, which we defined as increases in the death rate of more than one death per million, resulting from conflict and terrorism, natural disasters, major transport or technological accidents, and a subset of epidemic infectious diseases; these were added to estimates in the relevant years. In 47 countries with an identified peak adult prevalence for HIV/AIDS of more than 0.5% and where VR systems were less than 65% complete, we informed our estimates of age-sex-specific mortality using the Estimation and Projection Package (EPP)-Spectrum model fitted to national HIV/AIDS prevalence surveys and antenatal clinic serosurveillance systems. We estimated stillbirths, early neonatal, late neonatal, and childhood mortality using both survey and VR data in spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression models. We estimated abridged life tables for all location-years using age-specific death rates. We grouped locations into development quintiles based on the Sociodemographic Index (SDI) and analysed mortality trends by quintile. Using spline regression, we estimated the expected mortality rate for each age-sex group as a function of SDI. We identified countries with higher life expectancy than expected by comparing observed life expectancy to anticipated life expectancy on the basis of development status alone. Findings: Completeness in the registration of deaths increased from 28% in 1970 to a peak of 45% in 2013; completeness was lower after 2013 because of lags in reporting. Total deaths in children younger than 5 years decreased from 1970 to 2016, and slower decreases occurred at ages 5-24 years. By contrast, numbers of adult deaths increased in each 5-year age bracket above the age of 25 years. The distribution of annualised rates of change in age-specific mortality rate differed over the period 2000 to 2016 compared with earlier decades: increasing annualised rates of change were less frequent, although rising annualised rates of change still occurred in some locations, particularly for adolescent and younger adult age groups. Rates of stillbirths and under-5 mortality both decreased globally from 1970. Evidence for global convergence of death rates was mixed; although the absolute difference between age-standardised death rates narrowed between countries at the lowest and highest levels of SDI, the ratio of these death rates-a measure of relative inequality-increased slightly. There was a strong shift between 1970 and 2016 toward higher life expectancy, most noticeably at higher levels of SDI. Among countries with populations greater than 1 million in 2016, life expectancy at birth was highest for women in Japan, at 86.9 years (95% UI 86.7-87.2), and for men in Singapore, at 81.3 years (78.8-83.7) in 2016. Male life expectancy was generally lower than female life expectancy between 1970 and 2016, and the gap between male and female life expectancy increased with progression to higher levels of SDI. Some countries with exceptional health performance in 1990 in terms of the difference in observed to expected life expectancy at birth had slower progress on the same measure in 2016. Interpretation: Globally, mortality rates have decreased across all age groups over the past five decades, with the largest improvements occurring among children younger than 5 years. However, at the national level, considerable heterogeneity remains in terms of both level and rate of changes in age-specific mortality; increases in mortality for certain age groups occurred in some locations. We found evidence that the absolute gap between countries in age-specific death rates has declined, although the relative gap for some age-sex groups increased. Countries that now lead in terms of having higher observed life expectancy than that expected on the basis of development alone, or locations that have either increased this advantage or rapidly decreased the deficit from expected levels, could provide insight into the means to accelerate progress in nations where progress has stalled.
Keywords
DEVELOPING-COUNTRIES, RUSSIAN MORTALITY, CHILD-MORTALITY, HEALTH, HIV, METAANALYSIS, SURVIVAL, ALCOHOL, INCOME, DEATH

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Chicago
Wang, Haidong, Amanuel Alemu Abajobir, Kalkidan Hassen Abate, Cristiana Abbafati, Kaja M Abbas, Foad Abd-Allah, Semaw Ferede Abera, et al. 2017. “Global, Regional, and National Under-5 Mortality, Adult Mortality, Age-specific Mortality, and Life Expectancy, 1970-2016 : a Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016.” Lancet 390 (10100): 1084–1150.
APA
Wang, Haidong, Abajobir, A. A., Abate, K. H., Abbafati, C., Abbas, K. M., Abd-Allah, F., Abera, S. F., et al. (2017). Global, regional, and national under-5 mortality, adult mortality, age-specific mortality, and life expectancy, 1970-2016 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. LANCET, 390(10100), 1084–1150.
Vancouver
1.
Wang H, Abajobir AA, Abate KH, Abbafati C, Abbas KM, Abd-Allah F, et al. Global, regional, and national under-5 mortality, adult mortality, age-specific mortality, and life expectancy, 1970-2016 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. LANCET. 2017;390(10100):1084–150.
MLA
Wang, Haidong, Amanuel Alemu Abajobir, Kalkidan Hassen Abate, et al. “Global, Regional, and National Under-5 Mortality, Adult Mortality, Age-specific Mortality, and Life Expectancy, 1970-2016 : a Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016.” LANCET 390.10100 (2017): 1084–1150. Print.
@article{8533286,
  abstract     = {Background: Detailed assessments of mortality patterns, particularly age-specific mortality, represent a crucial input that enables health systems to target interventions to specific populations. Understanding how all-cause mortality has changed with respect to development status can identify exemplars for best practice. To accomplish this, the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) estimated age-specific and sex-specific all-cause mortality between 1970 and 2016 for 195 countries and territories and at the subnational level for the five countries with a population greater than 200 million in 2016. 
Methods: We have evaluated how well civil registration systems captured deaths using a set of demographic methods called death distribution methods for adults and from consideration of survey and census data for children younger than 5 years. We generated an overall assessment of completeness of registration of deaths by dividing registered deaths in each location-year by our estimate of all-age deaths generated from our overall estimation process. For 163 locations, including subnational units in countries with a population greater than 200 million with complete vital registration (VR) systems, our estimates were largely driven by the observed data, with corrections for small fluctuations in numbers and estimation for recent years where there were lags in data reporting (lags were variable by location, generally between 1 year and 6 years). For other locations, we took advantage of different data sources available to measure under-5 mortality rates (U5MR) using complete birth histories, summary birth histories, and incomplete VR with adjustments; we measured adult mortality rate (the probability of death in individuals aged 15-60 years) using adjusted incomplete VR, sibling histories, and household death recall. We used the U5MR and adult mortality rate, together with crude death rate due to HIV in the GBD model life table system, to estimate age-specific and sex-specific death rates for each location-year. Using various international databases, we identified fatal discontinuities, which we defined as increases in the death rate of more than one death per million, resulting from conflict and terrorism, natural disasters, major transport or technological accidents, and a subset of epidemic infectious diseases; these were added to estimates in the relevant years. In 47 countries with an identified peak adult prevalence for HIV/AIDS of more than 0.5\% and where VR systems were less than 65\% complete, we informed our estimates of age-sex-specific mortality using the Estimation and Projection Package (EPP)-Spectrum model fitted to national HIV/AIDS prevalence surveys and antenatal clinic serosurveillance systems. We estimated stillbirths, early neonatal, late neonatal, and childhood mortality using both survey and VR data in spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression models. We estimated abridged life tables for all location-years using age-specific death rates. We grouped locations into development quintiles based on the Sociodemographic Index (SDI) and analysed mortality trends by quintile. Using spline regression, we estimated the expected mortality rate for each age-sex group as a function of SDI. We identified countries with higher life expectancy than expected by comparing observed life expectancy to anticipated life expectancy on the basis of development status alone. 
Findings: Completeness in the registration of deaths increased from 28\% in 1970 to a peak of 45\% in 2013; completeness was lower after 2013 because of lags in reporting. Total deaths in children younger than 5 years decreased from 1970 to 2016, and slower decreases occurred at ages 5-24 years. By contrast, numbers of adult deaths increased in each 5-year age bracket above the age of 25 years. The distribution of annualised rates of change in age-specific mortality rate differed over the period 2000 to 2016 compared with earlier decades: increasing annualised rates of change were less frequent, although rising annualised rates of change still occurred in some locations, particularly for adolescent and younger adult age groups. Rates of stillbirths and under-5 mortality both decreased globally from 1970. Evidence for global convergence of death rates was mixed; although the absolute difference between age-standardised death rates narrowed between countries at the lowest and highest levels of SDI, the ratio of these death rates-a measure of relative inequality-increased slightly. There was a strong shift between 1970 and 2016 toward higher life expectancy, most noticeably at higher levels of SDI. Among countries with populations greater than 1 million in 2016, life expectancy at birth was highest for women in Japan, at 86.9 years (95\% UI 86.7-87.2), and for men in Singapore, at 81.3 years (78.8-83.7) in 2016. Male life expectancy was generally lower than female life expectancy between 1970 and 2016, and the gap between male and female life expectancy increased with progression to higher levels of SDI. Some countries with exceptional health performance in 1990 in terms of the difference in observed to expected life expectancy at birth had slower progress on the same measure in 2016. 
Interpretation: Globally, mortality rates have decreased across all age groups over the past five decades, with the largest improvements occurring among children younger than 5 years. However, at the national level, considerable heterogeneity remains in terms of both level and rate of changes in age-specific mortality; increases in mortality for certain age groups occurred in some locations. We found evidence that the absolute gap between countries in age-specific death rates has declined, although the relative gap for some age-sex groups increased. Countries that now lead in terms of having higher observed life expectancy than that expected on the basis of development alone, or locations that have either increased this advantage or rapidly decreased the deficit from expected levels, could provide insight into the means to accelerate progress in nations where progress has stalled.},
  author       = {Wang, Haidong and Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu and Abate, Kalkidan Hassen and Abbafati, Cristiana and Abbas, Kaja M and Abd-Allah, Foad and Abera, Semaw Ferede and Abraha, Haftom Niguse and Abu-Raddad, Laith J and Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen ME and Adedeji, Isaac Akinkunmi and Adedoyin, Rufus Adesoji and Adetifa, Ifedayo Morayo O and Adetokunboh, Olatunji and Afshin, Ashkan and Aggarwal, Rakesh and Agrawal, Anurag and Agrawal, Sutapa and Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad and Ahmed, Muktar Beshir and Aichour, Amani Nidhal and Aichour, Ibthiel and Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine and Aiyar, Sneha and Akanda, Shafqat and Akinyemiju, Tomi F and Akseer, Nadia and Al-Eyadhy, Ayman and Al Lami, Faris Hasan and Alabed, Samer and Alahdab, Fares and Al-Aly, Ziyad and Alam, Khurshid and Alam, Noore and Alasfoor, Deena and Aldridge, Robert William and Alene, Kefyalew Addis and Alhabib, Samia and Ali, Raghib and Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza and Aljunid, Syed M and Alkaabi, Juma M and Alkerwi, Ala'a and Alla, Francois and Allam, Shalini D and Allebeck, Peter and Al-Raddadi, Rajaa and Alsharif, Ubai and Altirkawi, Khalid A and Martin, Elena Alvarez and Alvis-Guzman, Nelson and Amare, Azmeraw T and Ameh, Emmanuel A and Amini, Erfan and Ammar, Walid and Amoako, Yaw Ampem and Anber, Nahla and Andrei, Catalina Liliana and Androudi, Sofia and Ansari, Hossein and Ansha, Mustafa Geleto and Antonio, Carl Abelardo T and Anwari, Palwasha and Arnlov, Johan and Arora, Megha and Al Artaman, Al Artaman and Aryal, Krishna Kumar and Asayesh, Hamid and Asgedom, Solomon Weldegebreal and Asghar, Rana Jawad and Assadi, Reza and Atey, Tesfay Mehari and Atre, Sachin R and Avila-Burgos, Leticia and Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G Arthur and Awasthi, Ashish and Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina Ayala and Babalola, Tesleem Kayode and Bacha, Umar and Badawi, Alaa and Balakrishnan, Kalpana and Balalla, Shivanthi and Barac, Aleksandra and Barber, Ryan M and Barboza, Miguel A and Barker-Collo, Suzanne L and Barnighausen, Till and Barquera, Simon and Barregard, Lars and Barrero, Lope H and Baune, Bernhard T and Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad and Bedi, Neeraj and Beghi, Ettore and Bejot, Yannick and Bekele, Bayu Begashaw and Bell, Michelle L and Bello, Aminu K and Bennett, Derrick A and Bennett, James R and Bensenor, Isabela M and Benson, Jennifer and Berhane, Adugnaw and Berhe, Derbew Fikadu and Bernabe, Eduardo and Beuran, Mircea and Beyene, Addisu Shunu and Bhala, Neeraj and Bhansali, Anil and Bhaumik, Soumyadeep and Bhutta, Zulfiqar A and Bikbov, Boris and Birungi, Charles and Biryukov, Stan and Bisanzio, Donal and Bizuayehu, Habtamu Mellie and Bjerregaard, Peter and Blosser, Christopher D and Boneya, Dube Jara and Boufous, Soufiane and Bourne, Rupert RA and Brazinova, Alexandra and Breitborde, Nicholas JK and Brenner, Hermann and Brugha, Traolach S and Bukhman, Gene and Negesa, Lemma and Bulto, Bulto and Bumgarner, Blair Randal and Burch, Michael and Butt, Zahid A and Cahill, Leah E and Cahuana-Hurtado, Lucero and Campos-Nonato, Ismael Ricardo and Car, Josip and Car, Mate and Crdenas, Rosario and Carpenter, David O and Carrero, Juan Jesus and Carter, Austin and Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A and Rivas, Jacqueline Castillo and Castro, Franz F and Castro, Ruben Estanislao and Catala-Lopez, Ferran and Chen, Honglei and Chiang, Peggy Pei-Chia and Chibalabala, Mirriam and Chisumpa, Vesper Hichilombwe and Chitheer, Abdulaal A and Choi, Jee-Young Jasmine and Christensen, Hanne and Christopher, Devasahayam Jesudas and Ciobanu, Liliana G and Cirillo, Massimo and Cohen, Aaron J and Colquhoun, Samantha M and Coresh, Josef and Criqui, Michael H and Cromwell, Elizabeth A and Crump, John A and Dandona, Lalit and Dandona, Rakhi and Dargan, Paul I and das Neves, Jose and Davey, Gail and Davitoiu, Dragos V and Davletov, Kairat and de Courten, Barbora and De Leo, Diego and Degenhardt, Louisa and Deiparine, Selina and Dellavalle, Robert P and Deribe, Kebede and Deribew, Amare and Des Jarlais, Don C and Dey, Subhojit and Dharmaratne, Samath D and Dherani, Mukesh K and Diaz-Torne, Cesar and Ding, Eric L and Dixit, Priyanka and Djalalinia, Shirin and Huyen Phuc Do, Huyen Phuc Do and Doku, David Teye and Donnelly, Christl Ann and Priscila, Kadine and dos Santos, Bender and Douwes-Schultz, Dirk and Driscoll, Tim R and Duan, Leilei and Dubey, Manisha and Duncan, Bruce Bartholow and Dwivedi, Laxmi Kant and Ebrahimi, Hedyeh and El Bcheraoui, Charbel and Ellingsen, Christian Lycke and Enayati, Ahmadali and Endries, Aman Yesuf and Ermakov, Sergey Petrovich and Eshetie, Setegn and Eshrati, Babak and Eskandarieh, Sharareh and Esteghamati, Alireza and Estep, Kara and Fanuel, Belaneh Bekele Fanuel and Faro, Andre and Farvid, Maryam S and Farzadfar, Farshad and Feigin, Valery L and Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mhammad and Fernandes, Jefferson G and Fernandes, Joao C and Feyissa, Tesfaye Regassa and Filip, Irina and Fischer, Florian and Foigt, Nataliya and Foreman, Kyle J and Frank, Tahvi and Franklin, Richard C and Fraser, Maya and Friedman, Joseph and Frostad, Joseph J and Fullman, Nancy and Furst, Thomas and Furtado, Joao M and Futran, Neal D and Gakidou, Emmanuela and Gambashidze, Ketevan and Gamkrelidze, Amiran and Gankpe, Fortune Gbetoho and Garcia-Basteiro, Alberto L and Gebregergs, Gebremedhin Berhe and Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde and Gebrekidan, Kahsu Gebrekirstos and Gebremichael, Mengistu Welday and Gelaye, Amha Admasie and Geleijnse, Johanna M and Gemechu, Bikila Lencha and Gemechu, Kasiye Shiferaw and Genova-Maleras, Ricard and Gesesew, Hailay Abrha and Gething, Peter W and Gibney, Katherine B and Gill, Paramjit Singh and Gillum, Richard F and Giref, Ababi Zergaw and Girma, Bedilu Weji and Giussani, Giorgia and Goenka, Shifalika and Gomez, Beatriz and Gona, Philimon N and Gopalani, Sameer Vali and Goulart, Alessandra Carvalho and Graetz, Nicholas and Gugnani, Harish Chander and Gupta, Prakash C and Gupta, Rahul and Gupta, Rajeev and Gupta, Tanush and Gupta, Vipin and Haagsma, Juanita A and Hafezi-Nejad, Nima and Bidgoli, Hassan Haghparast and Hakuzimana, Alex and Halasa, Yara A and Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi and Hambisa, Mitiku Teshome and Hamidi, Samer and Hammami, Mouhanad and Hancock, Jamie and Handal, Alexis J and Hankey, Graeme J and Hao, Yuantao and Harb, Hilda L and Hareri, Habtamu Abera and Harikrishnan, Sivadasanpillai and Haro, Josep Maria and Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh and Havmoeller, Rasmus and Hay, Roderick J and Hay, Simon I and He, Fei and Heredia-Pi, Ileana Beatriz and Herteliu, Claudiu and Hilawe, Esayas Haregot and Hoek, Hans W and Horita, Nobuyuki and Hosgood, H Dean and Hostiuc, Sorin and Hotez, Peter J and Hoy, Damian G and Hsairi, Mohamed and Htet, Aung Soe and Hu, Guoqing and Huang, Hsiang and Huang, John J and Iburg, Kim Moesgaard and Igumbor, Ehimario Uche and Ileanu, Bogdan Vasile and Inoue, Manami and Irenso, Asnake Ararsa and Irvine, Caleb MS and Islam, Nazrul and Jacobsen, Kathryn H and Jaenisch, Thomas and Jahanmehr, Nader and Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B and Javanbakht, Mehdi and Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra and Jeemon, Panniyammakal and Jensen, Paul N and Jha, Vivekanand and Jin, Ye and John, Denny and John, Oommen and Johnson, Sarah Charlotte and Jonas, Jost B and Jurisson, Mikk and Kabir, Zubair and Kadel, Rajendra and Kahsay, Amaha and Kalkonde, Yogeshwar and Kamal, Ritul and Kan, Haidong and Karch, Andre and Karema, Corine Kakizi and Karimi, Seyed M and Karthikeyan, Ganesan and Kasaeian, Amir and Kassaw, Nigussie Assefa and Kassebaum, Nicholas J and Kastor, Anshul and Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal and Kaul, Anil and Kawakami, Norito and Kazanjan, Konstantin and Keiyoro, Peter Njenga and Kelbore, Sefonias Getachew and Kemp, Andrew Haddon and Kengne, Andre Pascal and Keren, Andre and Kereselidze, Maia and Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair and Ketema, Ezra Belay and Khader, Yousef Saleh and Khalil, Ibrahim A and Khan, Ejaz Ahmad and Khan, Gulfaraz and Khang, Young-Ho and Khera, Sahil and Khoja, Abdullah Tawfih Abdullah and Khosravi, Mohammad Hossein and Kibret, Getiye Dejenu and Kieling, Christian and Kim, Cho-Il and Kim, Daniel and Kim, Pauline and Kim, Sungroul and Kim, Yun Jin and Kimokoti, Ruth W and Kinfu, Yohannes and Kishawi, Sami and Kissimova-Skarbek, Katarzyna A and Kissoon, Niranjan and Kivimaki, Mika and Knudsen, Ann Kristin and Kokubo, Yoshihiro and Kopec, Jacek A and Kosen, Soewarta and Koul, Parvaiz A and Koyanagi, Ai and Kravchenko, Michael and Krohn, Kristopher J and Defo, Barthelemy Kuate and Bicer, Burcu Kucuk and Kuipers, Ernst J and Kulikoff, Xie Rachel and Kulkarni, Veena S and Kumar, G Anil and Kumar, Pushpendra and Kumsa, Fekede Asefa and Kutz, Michael and Lachat, Carl and Lagat, Abraham K and Lager, Anton Carl Jonas and Lal, Dharmesh Kumar and Lalloo, Ratilal and Lambert, Nkurunziza and Lan, Qing and Lansingh, Van C and Larson, Heidi J and Larsson, Anders and Laryea, Dennis Odai and Lavados, Pablo M and Laxmaiah, Avula and Lee, Paul H and Leigh, James and Leung, Janni and Leung, Ricky and Levi, Miriam and Li, Yongmei and Liao, Yu and Liben, Misgan Legesse and Lim, Stephen S and Linn, Shai and Lipshultz, Steven E and Liu, Shiwei and Lodha, Rakesh and Logroscino, Giancarlo and Lorch, Scott A and Lorkowski, Stefan and Lotufo, Paulo A and Lozano, Rafael and Lunevicius, Raimundas and Lyons, Ronan A and Ma, Stefan and Macarayan, Erlyn Rachelle King and Machado, Isis Eloah and Mackay, Mark T and Abd el Razek, Mohammed Magdy and Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos and Mahdavi, Mahdi and Majdan, Marek and Majdzadeh, Reza and Majeed, Azeem and Malekzadeh, Reza and Malhotra, Rajesh and Malta, Deborah Carvalho and Mantovani, Lorenzo G and Manyazewal, Tsegahun and Mapoma, Chabila C and Marczak, Laurie B and Marks, Guy B and Martinez-Raga, Jose and Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlndio and Massano, Joao and Maulik, Pallab K and Mayosi, Bongani M and Mazidi, Mohsen and McAlinden, Colm and McGarvey, Stephen Theodore and McGrath, John J and Mckee, Martin and Mehata, Suresh and Mehndiratta, Man Mohan and Mehta, Kala M and Meier, Toni and Mekonnen, Tefera Chane and Meles, Kidanu Gebremariam and Memiah, Peter and Memish, Ziad A and Mendoza, Walter and Mengesha, Melkamu Merid and Mengistie, Mubarek Abera and Tadese, Desalegn and Menon, Mengistu Geetha R and Menota, Bereket Gebremichael and Mensah, George A and Meretoja, Atte and Meretoja, Tuomo J and Mezgebe, Haftay Berhane and Micha, Renata and Mikesell, Joseph and Miller, Ted R and Mills, Edward J and Minnig, Shawn and Mirarefin, Mojde and Mirrakhimov, Erkin M and Misganaw, Awoke and Mishra, Shiva Raj and Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin and Mohammadi, Alireza and Mohammed, Kedir Endris Shafiu Mohammed and Mohan, Murali BV and Mohanty, Sanjay K and Mokdad, Ali H and Assaye, Ashagre Molla and Mollenkopf, Sarah K and Molokhia, Mariam and Monasta, Lorenzo and Hernandez, Julio Cesar Montanez and Montico, Marcella and Mooney, Meghan D and Moore, Ami R and Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar and Moraga, Paula and Morawska, Lidia and Velasquez, Ilais Moreno and Mori, Rintaro and Morrison, Shane D and Mruts, Kalayu Birhane and Mueller, Ulrich O and Mullany, Erin and Muller, Kate and Venkata, Gudlavalleti and Murthy, Satyanarayana and Murthy, Srinivas and Musa, Kamarul Imran and Nachega, Jean B and Nagata, Chie and Nagel, Gabriele and Naghavi, Mohsen and Naidoo, Kovin S and Nanda, Lipika and Nangia, Vinay and Nascimento, Bruno Ramos and Natarajan, Gopalakrishnan and Negoi, Ionut and Cuong Tat Nguyen, Cuong Tat Nguyen and Ningrum, Dina Nur Anggraini and Nisar, Muhammad Imran and Nomura, Marika and Vuong Minh Nong, Vuong Minh Nong and Norheim, Ole F and Norrving, Bo and Noubiap, Jean Jacques N and Nyakarahuka, Luke and Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf and O'Donnell, Martin J and Ogbo, Felix Akpojene and Oh, In-Hwan and Okoro, Anselm and Oladimeji, Olanrewaju and Olagunju, Andrew Toyin and Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola and Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun and Oren, Eyal and Ortiz, Alberto and Osgood-Zimmerman, Aaron and Ota, Erika and Owolabi, Mayowa O and Oyekale, Abayomi Samuel and Pa, Mahesh and Pacella, Rosana E and Pakhale, Smita and Pana, Adrian and Panda, Basant Kumar and Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra and Park, Eun-Kee and Parsaeian, Mahboubeh and Patel, Tejas and Patten, Scott B and Patton, George C and Paudel, Deepak and Pereira, David M and Perez-Padilla, Rogelio and Perez-Ruiz, Fernando and Perico, Norberto and Pervaiz, Aslam and Pesudovs, Konrad and Peterson, Carrie Beth and Petri, William Arthur and Petzold, Max and Phillips, Michael Robert and Piel, Frederic B and Pigott, David M and Pishgar, Farhad and Plass, Dietrich and Polinder, Suzanne and Popova, Svetlana and Postma, Maarten J and Poulton, Richie G and Pourmalek, Farshad and Prasad, Narayan and Purwar, Manorama and Qorbani, Mostafa and Rabiee, Rynaz HS and Radfar, Amir and Rafay, Anwar and Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin and Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa and Rahman, Mahfuzar and Rahman, Mohammad Hifz Ur and Rahman, Sajjad Ur and Rai, Rajesh Kumar and Rajsic, Sasa and Ram, Usha and Rana, Saleem M and Ranabhat, Chhabi Lal and Rao, Paturi Vishnupriya and Rawaf, Salman and Ray, Sarah E and Rego, Maria Albertina Santiago and Rehm, Jugen and Reiner, Robert C and Remuzzi, Giuseppe and Renzaho, Andre MNN and Resnikoff, Serge and Rezaei, Satar and Rezai, Mohammad Sadegh and Ribeiro, Antonio L and Rokni, Mohammad Bagher and Ronfani, Luca and Roshandel, Gholamreza and Roth, Gregory A and Rothenbacher, Dietrich and Roy, Ambuj and Rubagotti, Enrico and Ruhago, George Mugambage and Saadat, Soheil and Sabde, Yogesh Damodar and Sachdev, Perminder S and Sadat, Nafis and Safdarian, Mahdi and Safiri, Sare Safi Saeid and Sagar, Rajesh and Sahathevan, Ramesh and Sahebkar, Amirhossein and Sahraian, Mohammad Ali and Salama, Joseph and Salamati, Payman and Salomon, Joshua A and Salvi, Sundeep Santosh and Samy, Abdallah M and Sanabria, Juan Ramon and Sanchez-Nino, Maria Dolores and Santos, Itamar S and Milicevic, Milena M Santric and Sarmiento-Suarez, Rodrigo and Sartorius, Benn and Satpathy, Maheswar and Sawhney, Monika and Saxena, Sonia and Saylan, Mete I and Schmidt, Maria Ines and Schneider, Ione JC and Schutte, Aletta E and Schwebel, David C and Schwendicke, Falk and Seedat, Soraya and Seid, Abdulbasit Musa and Sepanlou, Sadaf G and Servan-Mori, Edson E and Shackelford, Katya Anne and Shaheen, Amira and Shahraz, Saeid and Shaikh, Masood Ali and Shamsipour, Mansour and Shamsizadeh, Morteza and Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful and Sharma, Jayendra and Sharma, Rajesh and She, Jun and Shen, Jiabin and Shetty, Balakrishna P and Shi, Peilin and Shibuya, Kenji and Shigematsu, Mika and Shiri, Rahman and Shiue, Ivy and Shrime, Mark G and Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora and Silberberg, Donald H and Silpakit, Naris and Silva, Diego Augusto Santos and Silva, Joao Pedro and Silveira, Dayane Gabriele Alves and Sindi, Shireen and Singh, Abhishek and Singh, Jasvinder A and Singh, Prashant Kumar and Singh, Virendra and Sinha, Dhirendra Narain and Skiadaresi, Eirini and Sligar, Amber and Smith, David L and Sobaih, Badr HA and Sobngwi, Eugene and Soneji, Samir and Soriano, Joan B and Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T and Srinivasan, Vinay and Stathopoulou, Vasiliki and Steel, Nicholas and Stein, Dan J and Steiner, Caitlyn and Stockl, Heidi and Stokes, Mark Andrew and Strong, Mark and Sufiyan, Muawiyyah Babale and Suliankatchi, Rizwan Abdulkader and Sunguya, Bruno F and Sur, Patrick J and Swaminathan, Soumya and Sykes, Bryan L and Szoeke, Cassandra E. I. and Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael and Tadakamadla, Santosh Kumar and Tadese, Fentaw and Tandon, Nikhil and Tanne, David and Tarajia, Musharaf and Tavakkoli, Mohammad and Taveira, Nuno and Tehrani-Banihashemi, Arash and Tekelab, Tesfalidet and Tekle, Dejen Yemane and Shifa, Girma Temam and Temsah, Mohamad-Hani and Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman and Tesema, Cheru Leshargie and Tesssema, Belay and Theis, Andrew and Thomas, Nihal and Thompson, Alex H and Thomson, Alan J and Thrift, Amanda G and Tiruye, Tenaw Yimer and Tobe-Gai, Ruoyan and Tonelli, Marcello and Topor-Madry, Roman and Topouzis, Fotis and Tortajada, Miguel and Tran, Bach Xuan and Trujillo, Thomas Truelsen Ulises and Tsilimparis, Nikolaos and Tuem, Kald Beshir and Tuzcu, Emin Murat and Tyrovolas, Stefanos and Ukwaja, Kingsley Nnanna and Undurraga, Eduardo A and Uthman, Olalekan A and Uzochukwu, Benjamin S Chudi and van Boven, Job FM and Varakin, Yuri Y and Varughese, Santosh and Vasankari, Tommi and Vasconcelos, Ana Maria Nogales and Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy and Vidavalur, Ramesh and Violante, Francesco S and Vishnu, Abhishek and Vladimirov, Sergey K and Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich and Vollset, Stein Emil and Vos, Theo and Waid, Jillian L and Wakayo, Tolassa and Wang, Yuan-Pang and Weichenthal, Scott and Weiderpass, Elisabete and Weintraub, Robert G and Werdecker, Andrea and Wesana, Joshua and Wijeratne, Tissa and Wilkinson, James D and Wiysonge, Charles Shey and Woldeyes, Belete Getahun and Wolfe, Charles DA and Bushra, Abdulhalik Workicho and Workie, Shimelash Bitew and Xavier, Denis and Xu, Gelin and Yaghoubi, Mohsen and Yakob, Bereket and Yalew, Ayalnesh Zemene and Yan, Lijing L and Yano, Yuichiro and Yaseri, Mehdi and Ye, Pengpeng and Yimam, Hassen Hamid and Yip, Paul and Yirsaw, Biruck Desalegn and Yonemoto, Naohiro and Yoon, Seok-Jun and Yotebieng, Marcel and Younis, Mustafa Z and Zaidi, Zoubida and Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed and Zeeb, Hajo and Zenebe, Zerihun Menlkalew and Zerfu, Taddese Alemu and Zhang, Anthony Lin and Zhang, Xueying and Zodpey, Sanjay and Zuhlke, Liesl Joanna and Lopez, Alan D and Murray, Christopher JL},
  issn         = {0140-6736},
  journal      = {LANCET},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {10100},
  pages        = {1084--1150},
  title        = {Global, regional, and national under-5 mortality, adult mortality, age-specific mortality, and life expectancy, 1970-2016 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31833-0},
  volume       = {390},
  year         = {2017},
}

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