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Folates in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), amaranth (Amaranthus sp.) and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) : influence of cooking and malting

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Abstract
Effects of processing on the contents of five folate vitamers in quinoa, amaranth and buckwheat were analysed using a trienzymatic extraction method followed by LC-MS/MS. Total folate (TF) content, corresponding to the sum of folic acid (FA), 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) and 10-formyltetrahydrofolate (10-CHOTHF) expressed as folic acid equivalent, in raw quinoa, amaranth and buckwheat were 309 +/- 8.07, 228 +/- 24.2 and 153 +/- 12.4 mu g/100 g dw, respectively, being dominantly 5-MTHF. Boiling and steaming reduced the TF in amaranth by 58% and 22%, respectively, whereas up to a 10-15% increase was observed in quinoa. Boiling and steaming did not significantly alterthe TF content in buckwheat although significant changes were observed in some individual folate vitamers. Malting, on the other hand significantly increased TF content in amaranth by 21% (276 +/- 14.2 mu g/100 g dw) and buckwheat by 27% (193 +/- 20.0 mu g/100 g dw), whereas no significant change in quinoa was observed. Based on the EFSA recommendations, a portion of amaranth and quinoa (either boiled, steamed or malted) may contribute up to more than 25% of the dietary reference value for folates, whereas buckwheat may contribute only 14% when cooked and 19% when malted. Results demonstrate that quinoa, amaranth and buckwheat are good sources of folates, regardless of processing.
Keywords
Dietary reference value, Total folates, Retention factor, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, 10-formyltetrahydrofolate, Folic acid, Tetrahydrofolate, 5 formyltetrahydrofolate, Pseudocereals, LIQUID-CHROMATOGRAPHY, TRIENZYME EXTRACTION, LC-MS/MS, FOODS, GERMINATION, WHEAT, BIOAVAILABILITY, MICRONUTRIENTS, PSEUDOCEREALS, ASSAYS

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Citation

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Chicago
Motta, Carla, Inês Delgado, Ana Sofia Matos, Gerard Gonzales, Duarte Torres, Mariana Santos, Maria V Chandra-Hioe, Jayashree Arcot, and Isabel Castanheira. 2017. “Folates in Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa), Amaranth (Amaranthus Sp.) and Buckwheat (Fagopyrum Esculentum) : Influence of Cooking and Malting.” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 64 (2): 181–187.
APA
Motta, C., Delgado, I., Matos, A. S., Gonzales, G., Torres, D., Santos, M., Chandra-Hioe, M. V., et al. (2017). Folates in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), amaranth (Amaranthus sp.) and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) : influence of cooking and malting. JOURNAL OF FOOD COMPOSITION AND ANALYSIS, 64(2), 181–187.
Vancouver
1.
Motta C, Delgado I, Matos AS, Gonzales G, Torres D, Santos M, et al. Folates in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), amaranth (Amaranthus sp.) and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) : influence of cooking and malting. JOURNAL OF FOOD COMPOSITION AND ANALYSIS. 2017;64(2):181–7.
MLA
Motta, Carla, Inês Delgado, Ana Sofia Matos, et al. “Folates in Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa), Amaranth (Amaranthus Sp.) and Buckwheat (Fagopyrum Esculentum) : Influence of Cooking and Malting.” JOURNAL OF FOOD COMPOSITION AND ANALYSIS 64.2 (2017): 181–187. Print.
@article{8532432,
  abstract     = {Effects of processing on the contents of five folate vitamers in quinoa, amaranth and buckwheat were analysed using a trienzymatic extraction method followed by LC-MS/MS. Total folate (TF) content, corresponding to the sum of folic acid (FA), 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) and 10-formyltetrahydrofolate (10-CHOTHF) expressed as folic acid equivalent, in raw quinoa, amaranth and buckwheat were 309 +/- 8.07, 228 +/- 24.2 and 153 +/- 12.4 mu g/100 g dw, respectively, being dominantly 5-MTHF. Boiling and steaming reduced the TF in amaranth by 58\% and 22\%, respectively, whereas up to a 10-15\% increase was observed in quinoa. Boiling and steaming did not significantly alterthe TF content in buckwheat although significant changes were observed in some individual folate vitamers. Malting, on the other hand significantly increased TF content in amaranth by 21\% (276 +/- 14.2 mu g/100 g dw) and buckwheat by 27\% (193 +/- 20.0 mu g/100 g dw), whereas no significant change in quinoa was observed. Based on the EFSA recommendations, a portion of amaranth and quinoa (either boiled, steamed or malted) may contribute up to more than 25\% of the dietary reference value for folates, whereas buckwheat may contribute only 14\% when cooked and 19\% when malted. Results demonstrate that quinoa, amaranth and buckwheat are good sources of folates, regardless of processing.},
  author       = {Motta, Carla and Delgado, In{\^e}s and Matos, Ana Sofia and Gonzales, Gerard and Torres, Duarte and Santos, Mariana and Chandra-Hioe, Maria V and Arcot, Jayashree and Castanheira, Isabel},
  issn         = {0889-1575},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF FOOD COMPOSITION AND ANALYSIS},
  keyword      = {Dietary reference value,Total folates,Retention factor,5-methyltetrahydrofolate,10-formyltetrahydrofolate,Folic acid,Tetrahydrofolate,5 formyltetrahydrofolate,Pseudocereals,LIQUID-CHROMATOGRAPHY,TRIENZYME EXTRACTION,LC-MS/MS,FOODS,GERMINATION,WHEAT,BIOAVAILABILITY,MICRONUTRIENTS,PSEUDOCEREALS,ASSAYS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {181--187},
  title        = {Folates in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), amaranth (Amaranthus sp.) and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) : influence of cooking and malting},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2017.09.003},
  volume       = {64},
  year         = {2017},
}

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