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Do associations between objectively-assessed physical activity and neighbourhood environment attributes vary by time of the day and day of the week? : IPEN adult study

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Abstract
Background: To more accurately quantify the potential impact of the neighbourhood environment on adults' physical activity (PA), it is important to compare environment-PA associations between periods of the day or week when adults are more versus less likely to be in their neighbourhood and utilise its PA resources. We examined whether, among adults from 10 countries, associations between objectively-assessed neighbourhood environment attributes and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) varied by time of the day and day of the week. The secondary aim was to examine whether such associations varied by employment status, gender and city. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 6,712 adults from 14 cities across 10 countries with >= 1 day of valid accelerometer-assessed MVPA and complete information on socio-demographic and objectively-assessed environmental characteristics within 0.5 and 1 km street-network buffers around the home. Accelerometer measures (MVPA min/h) were created for six time periods from early morning until late evening/night, for weekdays and weekend days separately. Associations were estimated using generalized additive mixed models. Results: Time of the day, day of week, gender and employment status were significant moderators of environment-MVPA associations. Land use mix was positively associated with MVPA in women who were employed and in men irrespective of their employment status. The positive associations between MVPA and net residential density, intersection density and land use mix were stronger in the mornings of weekdays and the afternoon/evening periods of both weekdays and weekend days. Associations between number of parks and MVPA were stronger in the mornings and afternoon/evenings irrespective of day of the week. Public transport density showed consistent positive associations with MVPA during weekends, while stronger effects on weekdays were observed in the morning and early evenings. Conclusions: This study suggests that space and time constraints in adults' daily activities are important factors that determine the impact of neighbourhood attributes on PA. Consideration of time-specific associations is important to better characterise the magnitude of the effects of the neighbourhood environment on PA. Future research will need to examine the contribution of built environment characteristics of areas surrounding other types of daily life centres (e.g., workplaces) to explaining adults' PA at specific times of the day.
Keywords
physical activity & health, Accelerometry, Built environment, Exercise, Geographic Information Systems, International health, RAPID-TRANSIT SYSTEM, BUILT ENVIRONMENT, SEDENTARY TIME, PARK USE, WALKING, WALKABILITY, MULTILEVEL, TRANSPORT, PATTERNS, AREA

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Chicago
Cerin, Ester, Josef Mitáš, Kelli L Cain, Terry L Conway, Marc A Adams, Grant Schofield, Olga L Sarmiento, et al. 2017. “Do Associations Between Objectively-assessed Physical Activity and Neighbourhood Environment Attributes Vary by Time of the Day and Day of the Week? : IPEN Adult Study.” International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 14.
APA
Cerin, E., Mitáš, J., Cain, K. L., Conway, T. L., Adams, M. A., Schofield, G., Sarmiento, O. L., et al. (2017). Do associations between objectively-assessed physical activity and neighbourhood environment attributes vary by time of the day and day of the week? : IPEN adult study. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, 14.
Vancouver
1.
Cerin E, Mitáš J, Cain KL, Conway TL, Adams MA, Schofield G, et al. Do associations between objectively-assessed physical activity and neighbourhood environment attributes vary by time of the day and day of the week? : IPEN adult study. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. 2017;14.
MLA
Cerin, Ester, Josef Mitáš, Kelli L Cain, et al. “Do Associations Between Objectively-assessed Physical Activity and Neighbourhood Environment Attributes Vary by Time of the Day and Day of the Week? : IPEN Adult Study.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY 14 (2017): n. pag. Print.
@article{8532043,
  abstract     = {Background: To more accurately quantify the potential impact of the neighbourhood environment on adults' physical activity (PA), it is important to compare environment-PA associations between periods of the day or week when adults are more versus less likely to be in their neighbourhood and utilise its PA resources. We examined whether, among adults from 10 countries, associations between objectively-assessed neighbourhood environment attributes and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) varied by time of the day and day of the week. The secondary aim was to examine whether such associations varied by employment status, gender and city. 
Methods: This cross-sectional study included 6,712 adults from 14 cities across 10 countries with {\textrangle}= 1 day of valid accelerometer-assessed MVPA and complete information on socio-demographic and objectively-assessed environmental characteristics within 0.5 and 1 km street-network buffers around the home. Accelerometer measures (MVPA min/h) were created for six time periods from early morning until late evening/night, for weekdays and weekend days separately. Associations were estimated using generalized additive mixed models. 
Results: Time of the day, day of week, gender and employment status were significant moderators of environment-MVPA associations. Land use mix was positively associated with MVPA in women who were employed and in men irrespective of their employment status. The positive associations between MVPA and net residential density, intersection density and land use mix were stronger in the mornings of weekdays and the afternoon/evening periods of both weekdays and weekend days. Associations between number of parks and MVPA were stronger in the mornings and afternoon/evenings irrespective of day of the week. Public transport density showed consistent positive associations with MVPA during weekends, while stronger effects on weekdays were observed in the morning and early evenings. 
Conclusions: This study suggests that space and time constraints in adults' daily activities are important factors that determine the impact of neighbourhood attributes on PA. Consideration of time-specific associations is important to better characterise the magnitude of the effects of the neighbourhood environment on PA. Future research will need to examine the contribution of built environment characteristics of areas surrounding other types of daily life centres (e.g., workplaces) to explaining adults' PA at specific times of the day.},
  articleno    = {34},
  author       = {Cerin, Ester and Mit{\'a}\v{s}, Josef and Cain, Kelli L and Conway, Terry L and Adams, Marc A and Schofield, Grant and Sarmiento, Olga L and Reis, Rodrigo Siqueira and Schipperijn, Jasper and Davey, Rachel and Salvo, Deborah and Orzanco-Garralda, Rosario and Macfarlane, Duncan J and De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse and Owen, Neville and Sallis, James F and Van Dyck, Delfien},
  issn         = {1479-5868},
  journal      = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY},
  keyword      = {physical activity \& health,Accelerometry,Built environment,Exercise,Geographic Information Systems,International health,RAPID-TRANSIT SYSTEM,BUILT ENVIRONMENT,SEDENTARY TIME,PARK USE,WALKING,WALKABILITY,MULTILEVEL,TRANSPORT,PATTERNS,AREA},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {16},
  title        = {Do associations between objectively-assessed physical activity and neighbourhood environment attributes vary by time of the day and day of the week? : IPEN adult study},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12966-017-0493-z},
  volume       = {14},
  year         = {2017},
}

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