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Intake of fat-soluble vitamins in the Belgian population : adequacy and contribution of foods, fortified foods and supplements

(2017) NUTRIENTS. 9(8).
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Abstract
A key challenge of public health nutrition is to provide the majority of the population with a sufficient level of micronutrients while preventing high-consumers from exceeding the tolerable upper intake level. Data of the 2014 Belgian food consumption survey (n = 3200) were used to assess fat-soluble vitamin (vitamins A, D, E and K) intake from the consumption of foods, fortified foods and supplements. This study revealed inadequate intakes for vitamin A, from all sources, in the entire Belgian population and possible inadequacies for vitamin D. The prevalence of inadequate intake of vitamin A was lowest in children aged 3-6 (6-7%) and highest in adolescents (girls, 26%; boys, 34-37%). Except for women aged 60-64 years, more than 95% of the subjects had vitamin D intake from all sources below the adequate intake (AI) of 15 mu g/day. The risk for inadequate intake of vitamins K and E was low (median > AI). Belgian fortification and supplementation practices are currently inadequate to eradicate suboptimal intakes of vitamins A and D, but increase median vitamin E intake close to the adequate intake. For vitamin A, a small proportion (1-4%) of young children were at risk of exceeding the upper intake level (UL), while for vitamin D, inclusion of supplements slightly increased the risk for excessive intakes (% > UL) in adult women and young children. The results may guide health authorities when developing population health interventions and regulations to ensure adequate intake of fat-soluble vitamins in Belgium.
Keywords
DIETARY-SUPPLEMENTS, PRESCHOOL-CHILDREN, FUNCTIONAL FOODS, FORTIFICATION, EUROPE, CONSUMPTION, DESIGN, HEALTH, ADULTS, IMPACT, dietary intake, micronutrient adequacy, fat-soluble vitamins, fortified, foods, supplements, Belgian population

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Chicago
Moyersoen, Isabelle, Brecht Devleesschauwer, Arnold Dekkers, Karin de Ridder, Jean Tafforeau, John Van Camp, Herman Van Oyen, and Carl Lachat. 2017. “Intake of Fat-soluble Vitamins in the Belgian Population : Adequacy and Contribution of Foods, Fortified Foods and Supplements.” Nutrients 9 (8).
APA
Moyersoen, I., Devleesschauwer, B., Dekkers, A., de Ridder, K., Tafforeau, J., Van Camp, J., Van Oyen, H., et al. (2017). Intake of fat-soluble vitamins in the Belgian population : adequacy and contribution of foods, fortified foods and supplements. NUTRIENTS, 9(8).
Vancouver
1.
Moyersoen I, Devleesschauwer B, Dekkers A, de Ridder K, Tafforeau J, Van Camp J, et al. Intake of fat-soluble vitamins in the Belgian population : adequacy and contribution of foods, fortified foods and supplements. NUTRIENTS. 2017;9(8).
MLA
Moyersoen, Isabelle, Brecht Devleesschauwer, Arnold Dekkers, et al. “Intake of Fat-soluble Vitamins in the Belgian Population : Adequacy and Contribution of Foods, Fortified Foods and Supplements.” NUTRIENTS 9.8 (2017): n. pag. Print.
@article{8531955,
  abstract     = {A key challenge of public health nutrition is to provide the majority of the population with a sufficient level of micronutrients while preventing high-consumers from exceeding the tolerable upper intake level. Data of the 2014 Belgian food consumption survey (n = 3200) were used to assess fat-soluble vitamin (vitamins A, D, E and K) intake from the consumption of foods, fortified foods and supplements. This study revealed inadequate intakes for vitamin A, from all sources, in the entire Belgian population and possible inadequacies for vitamin D. The prevalence of inadequate intake of vitamin A was lowest in children aged 3-6 (6-7\%) and highest in adolescents (girls, 26\%; boys, 34-37\%). Except for women aged 60-64 years, more than 95\% of the subjects had vitamin D intake from all sources below the adequate intake (AI) of 15 mu g/day. The risk for inadequate intake of vitamins K and E was low (median {\textrangle} AI). Belgian fortification and supplementation practices are currently inadequate to eradicate suboptimal intakes of vitamins A and D, but increase median vitamin E intake close to the adequate intake. For vitamin A, a small proportion (1-4\%) of young children were at risk of exceeding the upper intake level (UL), while for vitamin D, inclusion of supplements slightly increased the risk for excessive intakes (\% {\textrangle} UL) in adult women and young children. The results may guide health authorities when developing population health interventions and regulations to ensure adequate intake of fat-soluble vitamins in Belgium.},
  articleno    = {860},
  author       = {Moyersoen, Isabelle and Devleesschauwer, Brecht and Dekkers, Arnold and de Ridder, Karin and Tafforeau, Jean and Van Camp, John and Van Oyen, Herman and Lachat, Carl},
  issn         = {2072-6643},
  journal      = {NUTRIENTS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {8},
  pages        = {22},
  title        = {Intake of fat-soluble vitamins in the Belgian population : adequacy and contribution of foods, fortified foods and supplements},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu9080860},
  volume       = {9},
  year         = {2017},
}

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