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The hormone 17β-estradiol promotes feminization of juveniles protandrous hermaphrodite false clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris)

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Abstract
The social structure of the false clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) typically consists of a pair of functional brooders within a population of individuals which remain as protandrous hermaphrodites usually incapable of breeding. This situation often hampers the commercial scale production of large numbers of clownfish offspring and broodstock. To enhance breeding outputs, protandrous hermaphrodites must be converted to functional brooders with a distinct sex prior to pairing and breeding. In this study, 17 beta-estradiol (E2) was used to feminize juveniles of A. ocellaris, with groups of fish incubated at 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mgL(-1) E2 for 15 days. The gender was substantiated on the basis of gonad histological profiles after 15, 30, and 60 days, work that includes verification of the safety levels of this hormone used in this application. All the treatments employed induced feminization, as shown by histology profiles revealing degenerate male germ cells and testes tissues and several developed ovarian cells at different stages (oogonia, previtellogenic and vitellogenic) 30 days after E2 incubation. Conversely, gonad profiles of non-treated fish did not change. The gonads possessed both ovarian and testicular tissues, a typical characteristic indicating that the fish are still ambisexual. Although E2 was effective in promoting gonad maturation, incubation of fish in high concentrations adversely affected fish survival. Mortalities occurred when E2 exceeded 0.1 mgL(-1). The latter concentration is considered the most appropriate level for inducing feminization and at the same time, maintaining the well-being of the organism.
Keywords
False clownfish, Amphiprion ocellaris, 17 beta-estradiol, feminization, hormone, ACUTE REGULATORY PROTEIN, FOLLICLE-STIMULATING-HORMONE, GONADAL SEX-DIFFERENTIATION, SIDE-CHAIN CLEAVAGE, CORAL-REEF FISH, ANEMONEFISH, REVERSAL, CLARKII, ESTRADIOL-17-BETA, EXPRESSION

Citation

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Chicago
Nguyen Phuc, Thuong, Yeong Yik Sung, Mohd Azmi Ambak, and Ambok Bolong Abol-Munafi. 2017. “The Hormone 17β-estradiol Promotes Feminization of Juveniles Protandrous Hermaphrodite False Clownfish (Amphiprion Ocellaris).” Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology 50 (3): 195–204.
APA
Nguyen Phuc, T., Sung, Y. Y., Ambak, M. A., & Abol-Munafi, A. B. (2017). The hormone 17β-estradiol promotes feminization of juveniles protandrous hermaphrodite false clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris). MARINE AND FRESHWATER BEHAVIOUR AND PHYSIOLOGY, 50(3), 195–204.
Vancouver
1.
Nguyen Phuc T, Sung YY, Ambak MA, Abol-Munafi AB. The hormone 17β-estradiol promotes feminization of juveniles protandrous hermaphrodite false clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris). MARINE AND FRESHWATER BEHAVIOUR AND PHYSIOLOGY. 2017;50(3):195–204.
MLA
Nguyen Phuc, Thuong et al. “The Hormone 17β-estradiol Promotes Feminization of Juveniles Protandrous Hermaphrodite False Clownfish (Amphiprion Ocellaris).” MARINE AND FRESHWATER BEHAVIOUR AND PHYSIOLOGY 50.3 (2017): 195–204. Print.
@article{8531799,
  abstract     = {The social structure of the false clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) typically consists of a pair of functional brooders within a population of individuals which remain as protandrous hermaphrodites usually incapable of breeding. This situation often hampers the commercial scale production of large numbers of clownfish offspring and broodstock. To enhance breeding outputs, protandrous hermaphrodites must be converted to functional brooders with a distinct sex prior to pairing and breeding. In this study, 17 beta-estradiol (E2) was used to feminize juveniles of A. ocellaris, with groups of fish incubated at 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mgL(-1) E2 for 15 days. The gender was substantiated on the basis of gonad histological profiles after 15, 30, and 60 days, work that includes verification of the safety levels of this hormone used in this application. All the treatments employed induced feminization, as shown by histology profiles revealing degenerate male germ cells and testes tissues and several developed ovarian cells at different stages (oogonia, previtellogenic and vitellogenic) 30 days after E2 incubation. Conversely, gonad profiles of non-treated fish did not change. The gonads possessed both ovarian and testicular tissues, a typical characteristic indicating that the fish are still ambisexual. Although E2 was effective in promoting gonad maturation, incubation of fish in high concentrations adversely affected fish survival. Mortalities occurred when E2 exceeded 0.1 mgL(-1). The latter concentration is considered the most appropriate level for inducing feminization and at the same time, maintaining the well-being of the organism.},
  author       = {Nguyen Phuc, Thuong and Sung, Yeong Yik and Ambak, Mohd Azmi and Abol-Munafi, Ambok Bolong},
  issn         = {1023-6244},
  journal      = {MARINE AND FRESHWATER BEHAVIOUR AND PHYSIOLOGY},
  keywords     = {False clownfish,Amphiprion ocellaris,17 beta-estradiol,feminization,hormone,ACUTE REGULATORY PROTEIN,FOLLICLE-STIMULATING-HORMONE,GONADAL SEX-DIFFERENTIATION,SIDE-CHAIN CLEAVAGE,CORAL-REEF FISH,ANEMONEFISH,REVERSAL,CLARKII,ESTRADIOL-17-BETA,EXPRESSION},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {195--204},
  title        = {The hormone 17β-estradiol promotes feminization of juveniles protandrous hermaphrodite false clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris)},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10236244.2017.1361788},
  volume       = {50},
  year         = {2017},
}

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