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Magnitude and spatial distribution of impact intensity under the foot relates to initial foot contact pattern

Bastiaan Breine (UGent) , Philippe Malcolm (UGent) , Veerle Segers (UGent) , Joeri Gerlo (UGent) , Rud Derie (UGent) , Todd Pataky, Edward C Frederick and Dirk De Clercq (UGent)
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Abstract
In running, foot contact patterns (rear-, mid- or forefoot contact) influence impact intensity and initial ankle and foot kinematics. The aim of the study was to compare impact intensity and its spatial distribution under the foot between different foot contact patterns. Forty-nine subjects ran at 3.2 m·s-1 over a level runway while ground reaction forces (GRF) and shoe-surface pressures were recorded and foot contact pattern was determined. A four-zone footmask (forefoot, midfoot, medial and lateral rearfoot) assessed the spatial distribution of the vertical GRF under the foot. We calculated peak vertical instantaneous loading rate of the GRF (VILR) per foot zone as the impact intensity measure. Midfoot contact patterns were shown to have the lowest and Atypical rearfoot contact patterns the highest impact intensities, respectively. The greatest local impact intensity was mainly situated under the rear- and midfoot for the Typical rearfoot contact patterns, under the midfoot for the Atypical rearfoot contact patterns and under the mid- and forefoot for the midfoot contact patterns. These findings indicate that different foot contact patterns could benefit from cushioning in different shoe zones.
Keywords
running, footwear, impact, force, foot strike, plantar pressure, GROUND REACTION FORCE, STRIKE PATTERNS, FEMALE RUNNERS, SHOD RUNNERS, REARFOOT, MIDFOOT

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Chicago
Breine, Bastiaan, Philippe Malcolm, Veerle Segers, Joeri Gerlo, Rud Derie, Todd Pataky, Edward C Frederick, and Dirk De Clercq. 2017. “Magnitude and Spatial Distribution of Impact Intensity Under the Foot Relates to Initial Foot Contact Pattern.” Journal of Applied Biomechanics 33 (6): 431–436.
APA
Breine, B., Malcolm, P., Segers, V., Gerlo, J., Derie, R., Pataky, T., Frederick, E. C., et al. (2017). Magnitude and spatial distribution of impact intensity under the foot relates to initial foot contact pattern. JOURNAL OF APPLIED BIOMECHANICS, 33(6), 431–436.
Vancouver
1.
Breine B, Malcolm P, Segers V, Gerlo J, Derie R, Pataky T, et al. Magnitude and spatial distribution of impact intensity under the foot relates to initial foot contact pattern. JOURNAL OF APPLIED BIOMECHANICS. 2017;33(6):431–6.
MLA
Breine, Bastiaan, Philippe Malcolm, Veerle Segers, et al. “Magnitude and Spatial Distribution of Impact Intensity Under the Foot Relates to Initial Foot Contact Pattern.” JOURNAL OF APPLIED BIOMECHANICS 33.6 (2017): 431–436. Print.
@article{8531234,
  abstract     = {In running, foot contact patterns (rear-, mid- or forefoot contact) influence impact intensity and initial ankle and foot kinematics. The aim of the study was to compare impact intensity and its spatial distribution under the foot between different foot contact patterns. Forty-nine subjects ran at 3.2 m{\textperiodcentered}s-1 over a level runway while ground reaction forces (GRF) and shoe-surface pressures were recorded and foot contact pattern was determined. A four-zone footmask (forefoot, midfoot, medial and lateral rearfoot) assessed the spatial distribution of the vertical GRF under the foot. We calculated peak vertical instantaneous loading rate of the GRF (VILR) per foot zone as the impact intensity measure. Midfoot contact patterns were shown to have the lowest and Atypical rearfoot contact patterns the highest impact intensities, respectively. The greatest local impact intensity was mainly situated under the rear- and midfoot for the Typical rearfoot contact patterns, under the midfoot for the Atypical rearfoot contact patterns and under the mid- and forefoot for the midfoot contact patterns. These findings indicate that different foot contact patterns could benefit from cushioning in different shoe zones.},
  author       = {Breine, Bastiaan and Malcolm, Philippe and Segers, Veerle and Gerlo, Joeri and Derie, Rud and Pataky, Todd and Frederick, Edward C and De Clercq, Dirk},
  issn         = {1065-8483},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF APPLIED BIOMECHANICS},
  keyword      = {running,footwear,impact,force,foot strike,plantar pressure,GROUND REACTION FORCE,STRIKE PATTERNS,FEMALE RUNNERS,SHOD RUNNERS,REARFOOT,MIDFOOT},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {6},
  pages        = {431--436},
  title        = {Magnitude and spatial distribution of impact intensity under the foot relates to initial foot contact pattern},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/jab.2016-0206},
  volume       = {33},
  year         = {2017},
}

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