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Capacitive sensing of N-formylamphetamine based on immobilized molecular imprinted polymers

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microMole (SEWAGE MONITORING SYSTEM FOR TRACKING SYNTHETIC DRUG LABORATORIES)
Abstract
A highly sensitive, capacitive biosensor was developed to monitor trace amounts of an amphetamine precursor in aqueous samples. The sensing element is a gold electrode with molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs) immobilized on its surface. A continuous-flow system with timed injections was used to simulate flowing waterways, such as sewers, springs, rivers, etc., ensuring wide applicability of the developed product. MIPs, implemented as a recognition element due to their stability under harsh environmental conditions, were synthesized using thermo-and UV-initiated polymerization techniques. The obtained particles were compared against commercially.,available MIPs according to specificity and selectivity metrics; commercial MIPs were characterized by quite broad cross-reactivity to other structurally related amphetamine-type stimulants. After the best batch of MIPs was chosen, different strategies for immobilizing them on the gold electrode's surface were evaluated, and their stability was also verified. The complete, developed system was validated through analysis of spiked samples. The limit of detection (LOD) for N-formylamphetamine was determined to be 10 mu M in this capacitive biosensor system. The obtained results indicate future possible applications of this MIPs-based capacitive biosensor for environmental and forensic analysis. To the best of our knowledge there are no existing MIPs-based sensors toward amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS).
Keywords
WATER ANALYSIS, ILLICIT DRUGS, WASTE-WATER, METHAMPHETAMINE, CONTAMINANTS, AMPHETAMINE, Capacitive biosensor, Molecular imprinted polymers, N-formylamphetamine, Water analysis

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Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

MLA
Graniczkowska, Kinga et al. “Capacitive Sensing of N-formylamphetamine Based on Immobilized Molecular Imprinted Polymers.” BIOSENSORS & BIOELECTRONICS 92 (2017): 741–747. Print.
APA
Graniczkowska, K., Puetz, M., Hauser, F. M., De Saeger, S., & Beloglazova, N. (2017). Capacitive sensing of N-formylamphetamine based on immobilized molecular imprinted polymers. BIOSENSORS & BIOELECTRONICS, 92, 741–747.
Chicago author-date
Graniczkowska, Kinga, Michael Puetz, Frank M Hauser, Sarah De Saeger, and Natalia Beloglazova. 2017. “Capacitive Sensing of N-formylamphetamine Based on Immobilized Molecular Imprinted Polymers.” Biosensors & Bioelectronics 92: 741–747.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Graniczkowska, Kinga, Michael Puetz, Frank M Hauser, Sarah De Saeger, and Natalia Beloglazova. 2017. “Capacitive Sensing of N-formylamphetamine Based on Immobilized Molecular Imprinted Polymers.” Biosensors & Bioelectronics 92: 741–747.
Vancouver
1.
Graniczkowska K, Puetz M, Hauser FM, De Saeger S, Beloglazova N. Capacitive sensing of N-formylamphetamine based on immobilized molecular imprinted polymers. BIOSENSORS & BIOELECTRONICS. 2017;92:741–7.
IEEE
[1]
K. Graniczkowska, M. Puetz, F. M. Hauser, S. De Saeger, and N. Beloglazova, “Capacitive sensing of N-formylamphetamine based on immobilized molecular imprinted polymers,” BIOSENSORS & BIOELECTRONICS, vol. 92, pp. 741–747, 2017.
@article{8530407,
  abstract     = {A highly sensitive, capacitive biosensor was developed to monitor trace amounts of an amphetamine precursor in aqueous samples. The sensing element is a gold electrode with molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs) immobilized on its surface. A continuous-flow system with timed injections was used to simulate flowing waterways, such as sewers, springs, rivers, etc., ensuring wide applicability of the developed product. MIPs, implemented as a recognition element due to their stability under harsh environmental conditions, were synthesized using thermo-and UV-initiated polymerization techniques. The obtained particles were compared against commercially.,available MIPs according to specificity and selectivity metrics; commercial MIPs were characterized by quite broad cross-reactivity to other structurally related amphetamine-type stimulants. After the best batch of MIPs was chosen, different strategies for immobilizing them on the gold electrode's surface were evaluated, and their stability was also verified. The complete, developed system was validated through analysis of spiked samples. The limit of detection (LOD) for N-formylamphetamine was determined to be 10 mu M in this capacitive biosensor system. The obtained results indicate future possible applications of this MIPs-based capacitive biosensor for environmental and forensic analysis. To the best of our knowledge there are no existing MIPs-based sensors toward amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS).},
  author       = {Graniczkowska, Kinga and Puetz, Michael and Hauser, Frank M and De Saeger, Sarah and Beloglazova, Natalia},
  issn         = {0956-5663},
  journal      = {BIOSENSORS & BIOELECTRONICS},
  keywords     = {WATER ANALYSIS,ILLICIT DRUGS,WASTE-WATER,METHAMPHETAMINE,CONTAMINANTS,AMPHETAMINE,Capacitive biosensor,Molecular imprinted polymers,N-formylamphetamine,Water analysis},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {741--747},
  title        = {Capacitive sensing of N-formylamphetamine based on immobilized molecular imprinted polymers},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2016.09.083},
  volume       = {92},
  year         = {2017},
}

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