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Test methods for resistance of concrete to sulfate attack : a critical review

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Abstract
Sulfate attack comprises a series of chemical reactions between sulfate ions and the components of hardened concrete. As these reactions may lead to cracking, spalling or strength loss of concrete structures, appropriate test methods are needed to determine the resistance of concrete under sulfate expoures. Accelerated test methods are most suitable since sulfate attack is typically a long term process. The current ASTM C1012 (2004) test method accelerates the attack mechanism by using a solution with a high sulfate concentration in which mortar specimens are immersed. The SVA procedure uses smaller specimens to obtain results earlier. In the Wittekindt method not only smaller specimens are used but also the w/c-ratio is increased. However,tese test still require several months. Test methods such as ASTM C452 (2006) and the Chatelier-anstett test use a mixture of cement and gypsum. Since in this case the sulfate source is located internally, no more time is needed for sulfate ingress. With these test methods results are obtained after 2 weeks, but the attack mechanism no longer represents field conditions in a realistic way.
Keywords
Sulfate, Ettringite, thaumasite, salt crystallization, delayed ettringite formation, standard methods, degradation measurements, expansion

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Chicago
Van Tittelboom, Kim, Nele De Belie, and Doug R. Hooton. 2013. “Test Methods for Resistance of Concrete to Sulfate Attack : a Critical Review.” In Performance of Cement-based Materials in Aggressive Aqueous Environments, ed. Mark Alexander, Alexandra Bertron, and Nele De Belie, 251–288. Springer.
APA
Van Tittelboom, K., De Belie, N., & Hooton, D. R. (2013). Test methods for resistance of concrete to sulfate attack : a critical review. In Mark Alexander, A. Bertron, & N. De Belie (Eds.), Performance of cement-based materials in aggressive aqueous environments (pp. 251–288). Springer.
Vancouver
1.
Van Tittelboom K, De Belie N, Hooton DR. Test methods for resistance of concrete to sulfate attack : a critical review. In: Alexander M, Bertron A, De Belie N, editors. Performance of cement-based materials in aggressive aqueous environments. Springer; 2013. p. 251–88.
MLA
Van Tittelboom, Kim, Nele De Belie, and Doug R. Hooton. “Test Methods for Resistance of Concrete to Sulfate Attack : a Critical Review.” Performance of Cement-based Materials in Aggressive Aqueous Environments. Ed. Mark Alexander, Alexandra Bertron, & Nele De Belie. Springer, 2013. 251–288. Print.
@incollection{8530277,
  abstract     = {Sulfate attack comprises a series of chemical reactions between sulfate ions and the components of hardened concrete. As these reactions may lead to cracking, spalling or strength loss of concrete structures, appropriate test methods are needed to determine the resistance of concrete under sulfate expoures. Accelerated test methods are most suitable since sulfate attack is typically a long term process. The current ASTM C1012 (2004) test method accelerates the attack mechanism by using a solution with a high sulfate concentration in which mortar specimens are immersed. The SVA procedure uses smaller specimens to obtain results earlier. In the Wittekindt method not only smaller specimens are used but also the w/c-ratio is increased. However,tese test still require several months. Test methods such as ASTM C452 (2006) and the Chatelier-anstett test use a mixture of cement and gypsum. Since in this case the sulfate source is located internally, no more time is needed for sulfate ingress. With these test methods results are obtained after 2 weeks, but the attack mechanism no longer represents field conditions in a realistic way.},
  author       = {Van Tittelboom, Kim and De Belie, Nele and Hooton, Doug R.},
  booktitle    = {Performance of cement-based materials in aggressive aqueous environments},
  editor       = {Alexander, Mark and Bertron, Alexandra and De Belie, Nele},
  isbn         = {978-94-007-5412-6},
  keyword      = {Sulfate,Ettringite,thaumasite,salt crystallization,delayed ettringite formation,standard methods,degradation measurements,expansion},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {251--288},
  publisher    = {Springer},
  series       = {State-of-the-Art-Report RILEM TC211-PAE},
  title        = {Test methods for resistance of concrete to sulfate attack : a critical review},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-5413-3},
  year         = {2013},
}

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