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Epidemiology of polyparasitism with Taenia soliwn, schistosomes and soil-transmitted helminths in the co-endemic village of Malanga, Democratic Republic of Congo

(2017) ACTA TROPICA. 171. p.186-193
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Abstract
Helminth co-infections are common in sub-Saharan Africa. However, little is known about the distribution and determinants of co-infections with Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis. Building on a previous community based study on human cysticercosis in Malanga village, we investigated co-infections with Taenia solium, soil transmitted helminths (STHs) and Schistosoma spp and associated risk factors in a random subsample of 330 participants. Real time PCR assays were used to detect DNA of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), 7'. solium and Schistosoma in stool samples and Schistosoma DNA in urine samples. Serum samples were tested for T. solium cysticercosis using the B158/B60 monoclonal antibody-based antigen ELISA. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression were applied to assess associations of single and co-infections with common risk factors (age, sex, area, hygiene) as well as pair wise associations between helminth species. Overall, 240 (72.7%) participants were infected with at least one helminth species; 128 (38.8%) harbored at least two helminth species (16.1% with STHs-Schistosoma, 14.5% with STHs-T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis and 8.2% with Schistosoma-T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis co-infections). No significant associations were found between Schistosoma-T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis co-infection and any of the risk factors studied. Males (OR = 2 (95%CI = 1.1-5), p = 0.03) and open defecation behavior (OR = 3.8 (95%CI = 1.1-6.5), p = 0.04) were associated with higher odds of STHs-T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis co-infection.. Village districts that were found at high risk of T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis were also at high risk of co-infection with STHs and T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis (OR = 3.2 (95%CI = 1.1-7.8), p = 0.03). Significant pair-wise associations were found between T. solium cysticerci and Necator americans (OR = 2.2 (95%CI = 1.2-3.8), p < 0.01) as well as Strongyloides stercoralis (OR = 2.7 (95%CI = 1.1-6.5), p = 0.02). These findings show that co-infections with T. solium are common in this polyparasitic community in DRC. Our results on risk factors of helminth co-infections and specific associations between helminths may contribute to a better integration of control within programmes that target more than one NTD.
Keywords
REAL-TIME PCR, NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASES, PLASMODIUM-FALCIPARUM, PARASITE COINFECTION, HOOKWORM COINFECTION, INFECTIONS, AFRICA, CYSTICERCOSIS, PATTERNS, ANEMIA, Polyparasitism, Co-infection, Helminths, Taenia solium, Schistosoma, Soil-transmitted helminths, Democratic Republic of Congo

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Chicago
Madinga, Joule, Katja Polman, Kirezi Kanobana, Lisette van Lieshout, Eric Brienen, Nicolas Praet, Constantin Kabwe, et al. 2017. “Epidemiology of Polyparasitism with Taenia Soliwn, Schistosomes and Soil-transmitted Helminths in the Co-endemic Village of Malanga, Democratic Republic of Congo.” Acta Tropica 171: 186–193.
APA
Madinga, J., Polman, K., Kanobana, K., van Lieshout, L., Brienen, E., Praet, N., Kabwe, C., et al. (2017). Epidemiology of polyparasitism with Taenia soliwn, schistosomes and soil-transmitted helminths in the co-endemic village of Malanga, Democratic Republic of Congo. ACTA TROPICA, 171, 186–193.
Vancouver
1.
Madinga J, Polman K, Kanobana K, van Lieshout L, Brienen E, Praet N, et al. Epidemiology of polyparasitism with Taenia soliwn, schistosomes and soil-transmitted helminths in the co-endemic village of Malanga, Democratic Republic of Congo. ACTA TROPICA. 2017;171:186–93.
MLA
Madinga, Joule, Katja Polman, Kirezi Kanobana, et al. “Epidemiology of Polyparasitism with Taenia Soliwn, Schistosomes and Soil-transmitted Helminths in the Co-endemic Village of Malanga, Democratic Republic of Congo.” ACTA TROPICA 171 (2017): 186–193. Print.
@article{8529865,
  abstract     = {Helminth co-infections are common in sub-Saharan Africa. However, little is known about the distribution and determinants of co-infections with Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis. Building on a previous community based study on human cysticercosis in Malanga village, we investigated co-infections with Taenia solium, soil transmitted helminths (STHs) and Schistosoma spp and associated risk factors in a random subsample of 330 participants. Real time PCR assays were used to detect DNA of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), 7'. solium and Schistosoma in stool samples and Schistosoma DNA in urine samples. Serum samples were tested for T. solium cysticercosis using the B158/B60 monoclonal antibody-based antigen ELISA. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression were applied to assess associations of single and co-infections with common risk factors (age, sex, area, hygiene) as well as pair wise associations between helminth species. 
Overall, 240 (72.7\%) participants were infected with at least one helminth species; 128 (38.8\%) harbored at least two helminth species (16.1\% with STHs-Schistosoma, 14.5\% with STHs-T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis and 8.2\% with Schistosoma-T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis co-infections). No significant associations were found between Schistosoma-T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis co-infection and any of the risk factors studied. Males (OR = 2 (95\%CI = 1.1-5), p = 0.03) and open defecation behavior (OR = 3.8 (95\%CI = 1.1-6.5), p = 0.04) were associated with higher odds of STHs-T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis co-infection.. Village districts that were found at high risk of T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis were also at high risk of co-infection with STHs and T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis (OR = 3.2 (95\%CI = 1.1-7.8), p = 0.03). Significant pair-wise associations were found between T. solium cysticerci and Necator americans (OR = 2.2 (95\%CI = 1.2-3.8), p {\textlangle} 0.01) as well as Strongyloides stercoralis (OR = 2.7 (95\%CI = 1.1-6.5), p = 0.02). 
These findings show that co-infections with T. solium are common in this polyparasitic community in DRC. Our results on risk factors of helminth co-infections and specific associations between helminths may contribute to a better integration of control within programmes that target more than one NTD.},
  author       = {Madinga, Joule and Polman, Katja and Kanobana, Kirezi and van Lieshout, Lisette and Brienen, Eric and Praet, Nicolas and Kabwe, Constantin and Gabri{\"e}l, Sarah and Dorny, Pierre and Lutumba, Pascal and Speybroeck, Niko},
  issn         = {0001-706X},
  journal      = {ACTA TROPICA},
  keyword      = {REAL-TIME PCR,NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASES,PLASMODIUM-FALCIPARUM,PARASITE COINFECTION,HOOKWORM COINFECTION,INFECTIONS,AFRICA,CYSTICERCOSIS,PATTERNS,ANEMIA,Polyparasitism,Co-infection,Helminths,Taenia solium,Schistosoma,Soil-transmitted helminths,Democratic Republic of Congo},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {186--193},
  title        = {Epidemiology of polyparasitism with Taenia soliwn, schistosomes and soil-transmitted helminths in the co-endemic village of Malanga, Democratic Republic of Congo},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.03.019},
  volume       = {171},
  year         = {2017},
}

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