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Connexin channels at the glio-vascular interface : gatekeepers of the brain

(2017) NEUROCHEMICAL RESEARCH. 42(9). p.2519-2536
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Abstract
Neuronal survival, electrical signaling and synaptic activity require a well-balanced micro-environment in the central nervous system. This is achieved by the blood-brain barrier (BBB), an endothelial barrier situated in the brain capillaries, that controls near-to-all passage in and out of the brain. The endothelial barrier function is highly dependent on signaling interactions with surrounding glial, neuronal and vascular cells, together forming the neuro-glio-vascular unit. Within this functional unit, connexin (Cx) channels are of utmost importance for intercellular communication between the different cellular compartments. Connexins are best known as the building blocks of gap junction (GJ) channels that enable direct cell-cell transfer of metabolic, biochemical and electric signals. In addition, beyond their role in direct intercellular communication, Cxs also form unapposed, non-junctional hemichannels in the plasma membrane that allow the passage of several paracrine messengers, complementing direct GJ communication. Within the NGVU, Cxs are expressed in vascular endothelial cells, including those that form the BBB, and are eminent in astrocytes, especially at their endfoot processes that wrap around cerebral vessels. However, despite the density of Cx channels at this so-called gliovascular interface, it remains unclear as to how Cx-based signaling between astrocytes and BBB endothelial cells may converge control over BBB permeability in health and disease. In this review we describe available evidence that supports a role for astroglial as well as endothelial Cxs in the regulation of BBB permeability during development as well as in disease states.
Keywords
Connexin, Gliovascular interface, Astrocyte, Blood-brain barrier, Inflammation, MICROVASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL-CELLS, FIBROBLAST-GROWTH-FACTOR, GAP-JUNCTION CHANNELS, NECROSIS-FACTOR-ALPHA, EXPERIMENTAL AUTOIMMUNE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, DEPENDENT GLUTAMATE RELEASE, INTERCELLULAR CA2+ WAVES, LOW EXTRACELLULAR CA2+, IN-VITRO MODELS, BARRIER INTEGRITY

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Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

Chicago
De Bock, Marijke, Luc Leybaert, and Christian Giaume. 2017. “Connexin Channels at the Glio-vascular Interface : Gatekeepers of the Brain.” Neurochemical Research 42 (9): 2519–2536.
APA
De Bock, Marijke, Leybaert, L., & Giaume, C. (2017). Connexin channels at the glio-vascular interface : gatekeepers of the brain. NEUROCHEMICAL RESEARCH, 42(9), 2519–2536.
Vancouver
1.
De Bock M, Leybaert L, Giaume C. Connexin channels at the glio-vascular interface : gatekeepers of the brain. NEUROCHEMICAL RESEARCH. 2017;42(9):2519–36.
MLA
De Bock, Marijke, Luc Leybaert, and Christian Giaume. “Connexin Channels at the Glio-vascular Interface : Gatekeepers of the Brain.” NEUROCHEMICAL RESEARCH 42.9 (2017): 2519–2536. Print.
@article{8529725,
  abstract     = {Neuronal survival, electrical signaling and synaptic activity require a well-balanced micro-environment in the central nervous system. This is achieved by the blood-brain barrier (BBB), an endothelial barrier situated in the brain capillaries, that controls near-to-all passage in and out of the brain. The endothelial barrier function is highly dependent on signaling interactions with surrounding glial, neuronal and vascular cells, together forming the neuro-glio-vascular unit. Within this functional unit, connexin (Cx) channels are of utmost importance for intercellular communication between the different cellular compartments. Connexins are best known as the building blocks of gap junction (GJ) channels that enable direct cell-cell transfer of metabolic, biochemical and electric signals. In addition, beyond their role in direct intercellular communication, Cxs also form unapposed, non-junctional hemichannels in the plasma membrane that allow the passage of several paracrine messengers, complementing direct GJ communication. Within the NGVU, Cxs are expressed in vascular endothelial cells, including those that form the BBB, and are eminent in astrocytes, especially at their endfoot processes that wrap around cerebral vessels. However, despite the density of Cx channels at this so-called gliovascular interface, it remains unclear as to how Cx-based signaling between astrocytes and BBB endothelial cells may converge control over BBB permeability in health and disease. In this review we describe available evidence that supports a role for astroglial as well as endothelial Cxs in the regulation of BBB permeability during development as well as in disease states.},
  author       = {De Bock, Marijke and Leybaert, Luc and Giaume, Christian},
  issn         = {0364-3190},
  journal      = {NEUROCHEMICAL RESEARCH},
  keyword      = {Connexin,Gliovascular interface,Astrocyte,Blood-brain barrier,Inflammation,MICROVASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL-CELLS,FIBROBLAST-GROWTH-FACTOR,GAP-JUNCTION CHANNELS,NECROSIS-FACTOR-ALPHA,EXPERIMENTAL AUTOIMMUNE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS,DEPENDENT GLUTAMATE RELEASE,INTERCELLULAR CA2+ WAVES,LOW EXTRACELLULAR CA2+,IN-VITRO MODELS,BARRIER INTEGRITY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {9},
  pages        = {2519--2536},
  title        = {Connexin channels at the glio-vascular interface : gatekeepers of the brain},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-017-2313-x},
  volume       = {42},
  year         = {2017},
}

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