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Emerging Fusarium and Alternaria mycotoxins : occurrence, toxicity and toxicokinetics

Sophie Fraeyman (UGent) , Siska Croubels (UGent) , Mathias Devreese (UGent) and Gunther Antonissen (UGent)
(2017) TOXINS. 9.
Author
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Abstract
Emerging Fusarium and Alternaria mycotoxins gain more and more interest due to their frequent contamination of food and feed, although in vivo toxicity and toxicokinetic data are limited. Whereas the Fusarium mycotoxins beauvericin, moniliformin and enniatins particularly contaminate grain and grain-based products, Alternaria mycotoxins are also detected in fruits, vegetables and wines. Although contamination levels are usually low (mu g/kg range), higher contamination levels of enniatins and tenuazonic acid may occasionally occur. In vitro studies suggest genotoxic effects of enniatins A, A1 and B1, beauvericin, moniliformin, alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altertoxins and stemphyltoxin-III. Furthermore, in vitro studies suggest immunomodulating effects of most emerging toxins and a reproductive health hazard of alternariol, beauvericin and enniatin B. More in vivo toxicity data on the individual and combined effects of these contaminants on reproductive and immune system in both humans and animals is needed to update the risk evaluation by the European Food Safety Authority. Taking into account new occurrence data for tenuazonic acid, the complete oral bioavailability, the low total body clearance in pigs and broiler chickens and the limited toxicity data, a health risk cannot be completely excluded. Besides, some less known Alternaria toxins, especially the genotoxic altertoxins and stemphyltoxin III, should be incorporated in risk evaluation as well.
Keywords
emerging mycotoxin, occurrence, toxicity, toxicokinetics, Fusarium, Alternaria, CULTURED-MAMMALIAN-CELLS, TENUAZONIC ACID, IN-VITRO, CACO-2 CELLS, LC-MS/MS, FUMONISIN B-1, ENNIATIN B, SECONDARY METABOLITES, MITOCHONDRIAL DAMAGE, QUANTITATIVE-DETERMINATION

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Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

MLA
Fraeyman, Sophie et al. “Emerging Fusarium and Alternaria Mycotoxins : Occurrence, Toxicity and Toxicokinetics.” TOXINS 9 (2017): n. pag. Print.
APA
Fraeyman, S., Croubels, S., Devreese, M., & Antonissen, G. (2017). Emerging Fusarium and Alternaria mycotoxins : occurrence, toxicity and toxicokinetics. TOXINS, 9.
Chicago author-date
Fraeyman, Sophie, Siska Croubels, Mathias Devreese, and Gunther Antonissen. 2017. “Emerging Fusarium and Alternaria Mycotoxins : Occurrence, Toxicity and Toxicokinetics.” Toxins 9.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Fraeyman, Sophie, Siska Croubels, Mathias Devreese, and Gunther Antonissen. 2017. “Emerging Fusarium and Alternaria Mycotoxins : Occurrence, Toxicity and Toxicokinetics.” Toxins 9.
Vancouver
1.
Fraeyman S, Croubels S, Devreese M, Antonissen G. Emerging Fusarium and Alternaria mycotoxins : occurrence, toxicity and toxicokinetics. TOXINS. 2017;9.
IEEE
[1]
S. Fraeyman, S. Croubels, M. Devreese, and G. Antonissen, “Emerging Fusarium and Alternaria mycotoxins : occurrence, toxicity and toxicokinetics,” TOXINS, vol. 9, 2017.
@article{8528932,
  abstract     = {Emerging Fusarium and Alternaria mycotoxins gain more and more interest due to their frequent contamination of food and feed, although in vivo toxicity and toxicokinetic data are limited. Whereas the Fusarium mycotoxins beauvericin, moniliformin and enniatins particularly contaminate grain and grain-based products, Alternaria mycotoxins are also detected in fruits, vegetables and wines. Although contamination levels are usually low (mu g/kg range), higher contamination levels of enniatins and tenuazonic acid may occasionally occur. In vitro studies suggest genotoxic effects of enniatins A, A1 and B1, beauvericin, moniliformin, alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altertoxins and stemphyltoxin-III. Furthermore, in vitro studies suggest immunomodulating effects of most emerging toxins and a reproductive health hazard of alternariol, beauvericin and enniatin B. More in vivo toxicity data on the individual and combined effects of these contaminants on reproductive and immune system in both humans and animals is needed to update the risk evaluation by the European Food Safety Authority. Taking into account new occurrence data for tenuazonic acid, the complete oral bioavailability, the low total body clearance in pigs and broiler chickens and the limited toxicity data, a health risk cannot be completely excluded. Besides, some less known Alternaria toxins, especially the genotoxic altertoxins and stemphyltoxin III, should be incorporated in risk evaluation as well.},
  articleno    = {7},
  author       = {Fraeyman, Sophie and Croubels, Siska and Devreese, Mathias and Antonissen, Gunther},
  issn         = {2072-6651},
  journal      = {TOXINS},
  keywords     = {emerging mycotoxin,occurrence,toxicity,toxicokinetics,Fusarium,Alternaria,CULTURED-MAMMALIAN-CELLS,TENUAZONIC ACID,IN-VITRO,CACO-2 CELLS,LC-MS/MS,FUMONISIN B-1,ENNIATIN B,SECONDARY METABOLITES,MITOCHONDRIAL DAMAGE,QUANTITATIVE-DETERMINATION},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {30},
  title        = {Emerging Fusarium and Alternaria mycotoxins : occurrence, toxicity and toxicokinetics},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins9070228},
  volume       = {9},
  year         = {2017},
}

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