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Abstract
In this synthesis paper addressing hydrologic scaling and similarity, we posit that roadblocks in the search for universal laws of hydrology are hindered by our focus on computational simulation (the third paradigm) and assert that it is time for hydrology to embrace a fourth paradigm of data-intensive science. Advances in information-based hydrologic science, coupled with an explosion of hydrologic data and advances in parameter estimation and modeling, have laid the foundation for a data-driven framework for scrutinizing hydrological scaling and similarity hypotheses. We summarize important scaling and similarity concepts (hypotheses) that require testing; describe a mutual information framework for testing these hypotheses; describe boundary condition, state, flux, and parameter data requirements across scales to support testing these hypotheses; and discuss some challenges to overcome while pursuing the fourth hydrological paradigm. We call upon the hydrologic sciences community to develop a focused effort towards adopting the fourth paradigm and apply this to outstanding challenges in scaling and similarity.
Keywords
REPRESENTATIVE ELEMENTARY AREA, GENERAL-CIRCULATION MODELS, SOIL-MOISTURE PRODUCTS, LAND-SURFACE, SPATIAL VARIABILITY, SUBSURFACE HETEROGENEITY, WATERSHED THERMODYNAMICS, PARAMETER-ESTIMATION, STOCHASTIC APPROACH, UNIFYING FRAMEWORK

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Chicago
Peters-Lidard, Christa D, Martyn Clark, Luis Samaniego, Niko Verhoest, Tim van Emmerik, Remko Uijlenhoet, Kevin Achieng, Trenton E Franz, and Ross Woods. 2017. “Scaling, Similarity, and the Fourth Paradigm for Hydrology.” Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 21 (7): 3701–3713.
APA
Peters-Lidard, C. D., Clark, M., Samaniego, L., Verhoest, N., van Emmerik, T., Uijlenhoet, R., Achieng, K., et al. (2017). Scaling, similarity, and the fourth paradigm for hydrology. HYDROLOGY AND EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCES, 21(7), 3701–3713.
Vancouver
1.
Peters-Lidard CD, Clark M, Samaniego L, Verhoest N, van Emmerik T, Uijlenhoet R, et al. Scaling, similarity, and the fourth paradigm for hydrology. HYDROLOGY AND EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCES. 2017;21(7):3701–13.
MLA
Peters-Lidard, Christa D, Martyn Clark, Luis Samaniego, et al. “Scaling, Similarity, and the Fourth Paradigm for Hydrology.” HYDROLOGY AND EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCES 21.7 (2017): 3701–3713. Print.
@article{8528921,
  abstract     = {In this synthesis paper addressing hydrologic scaling and similarity, we posit that roadblocks in the search for universal laws of hydrology are hindered by our focus on computational simulation (the third paradigm) and assert that it is time for hydrology to embrace a fourth paradigm of data-intensive science. Advances in information-based hydrologic science, coupled with an explosion of hydrologic data and advances in parameter estimation and modeling, have laid the foundation for a data-driven framework for scrutinizing hydrological scaling and similarity hypotheses. We summarize important scaling and similarity concepts (hypotheses) that require testing; describe a mutual information framework for testing these hypotheses; describe boundary condition, state, flux, and parameter data requirements across scales to support testing these hypotheses; and discuss some challenges to overcome while pursuing the fourth hydrological paradigm. We call upon the hydrologic sciences community to develop a focused effort towards adopting the fourth paradigm and apply this to outstanding challenges in scaling and similarity.},
  author       = {Peters-Lidard, Christa D and Clark, Martyn and Samaniego, Luis and Verhoest, Niko and van Emmerik, Tim and Uijlenhoet, Remko and Achieng, Kevin and Franz, Trenton E and Woods, Ross},
  issn         = {1027-5606},
  journal      = {HYDROLOGY AND EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCES},
  keyword      = {REPRESENTATIVE ELEMENTARY AREA,GENERAL-CIRCULATION MODELS,SOIL-MOISTURE PRODUCTS,LAND-SURFACE,SPATIAL VARIABILITY,SUBSURFACE HETEROGENEITY,WATERSHED THERMODYNAMICS,PARAMETER-ESTIMATION,STOCHASTIC APPROACH,UNIFYING FRAMEWORK},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {7},
  pages        = {3701--3713},
  title        = {Scaling, similarity, and the fourth paradigm for hydrology},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/hess-21-3701-2017},
  volume       = {21},
  year         = {2017},
}

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