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Imaging the 3D trace metal and metalloid distribution in mature wheat and rye grains via laser ablation-ICP-mass spectrometry and micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

Stijn Van Malderen (UGent), Brecht Laforce (UGent), Thibaut Van Acker (UGent), Laszlo Vincze (UGent) and Frank Vanhaecke (UGent)
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Abstract
Toxic trace metals and metalloids in human nutrient sources pose a severe health risk, and the processes governing metal accumulation should hence be well understood. In this work, the spatial distribution of toxic trace metals/metalloids and micronutrients (Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg and Pb) in mature wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rye (Secale cereale L.) grains at typical exposure levels was visualized and quantified via laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) by serial sectioning. The bulk concentrations of these elements were also determined by pneumatic nebulisation-ICP-MS. Furthermore, longitudinal sections were scanned using m-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry to confirm the major element distribution. Serial sectioning in this study was realized via a polishing strategy. Although the methodology is time-consuming and laborious, it enables to access 3D information for samples which cannot be sectioned using a microtome on a depth scale that would otherwise be inaccessible by a laser probe. In the elemental images, strong local enrichment patterns for Mn and Zn are apparent in the aleurone layer/seed coat, vascular tissue of the crease, and embryonic tissue, whereas Cr, As, Cd and Pb have been mainly accumulated in the grain endosperm as a result of different transport and storage dynamics.
Keywords
ARSENIC-PHYTOCHELATIN COMPLEXES, ORYZA-SATIVA L., HIGH-RESOLUTION, PLANT, UREASES, RICE GRAINS, ZINC, IRON, TRANSPORT, ELEMENTS, MS

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Chicago
Van Malderen, Stijn, Brecht Laforce, Thibaut Van Acker, Laszlo Vincze, and Frank Vanhaecke. 2017. “Imaging the 3D Trace Metal and Metalloid Distribution in Mature Wheat and Rye Grains via Laser ablation-ICP-mass Spectrometry and micro-X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry.” Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry 32 (2): 289–298.
APA
Van Malderen, Stijn, Laforce, B., Van Acker, T., Vincze, L., & Vanhaecke, F. (2017). Imaging the 3D trace metal and metalloid distribution in mature wheat and rye grains via laser ablation-ICP-mass spectrometry and micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL ATOMIC SPECTROMETRY, 32(2), 289–298.
Vancouver
1.
Van Malderen S, Laforce B, Van Acker T, Vincze L, Vanhaecke F. Imaging the 3D trace metal and metalloid distribution in mature wheat and rye grains via laser ablation-ICP-mass spectrometry and micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL ATOMIC SPECTROMETRY. 2017;32(2):289–98.
MLA
Van Malderen, Stijn, Brecht Laforce, Thibaut Van Acker, et al. “Imaging the 3D Trace Metal and Metalloid Distribution in Mature Wheat and Rye Grains via Laser ablation-ICP-mass Spectrometry and micro-X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry.” JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL ATOMIC SPECTROMETRY 32.2 (2017): 289–298. Print.
@article{8528231,
  abstract     = {Toxic trace metals and metalloids in human nutrient sources pose a severe health risk, and the processes governing metal accumulation should hence be well understood. In this work, the spatial distribution of toxic trace metals/metalloids and micronutrients (Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg and Pb) in mature wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rye (Secale cereale L.) grains at typical exposure levels was visualized and quantified via laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) by serial sectioning. The bulk concentrations of these elements were also determined by pneumatic nebulisation-ICP-MS. Furthermore, longitudinal sections were scanned using m-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry to confirm the major element distribution. Serial sectioning in this study was realized via a polishing strategy. Although the methodology is time-consuming and laborious, it enables to access 3D information for samples which cannot be sectioned using a microtome on a depth scale that would otherwise be inaccessible by a laser probe. In the elemental images, strong local enrichment patterns for Mn and Zn are apparent in the aleurone layer/seed coat, vascular tissue of the crease, and embryonic tissue, whereas Cr, As, Cd and Pb have been mainly accumulated in the grain endosperm as a result of different transport and storage dynamics.},
  author       = {Van Malderen, Stijn and Laforce, Brecht and Van Acker, Thibaut and Vincze, Laszlo and Vanhaecke, Frank},
  issn         = {0267-9477},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL ATOMIC SPECTROMETRY},
  keyword      = {ARSENIC-PHYTOCHELATIN COMPLEXES,ORYZA-SATIVA L.,HIGH-RESOLUTION,PLANT,UREASES,RICE GRAINS,ZINC,IRON,TRANSPORT,ELEMENTS,MS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {289--298},
  title        = {Imaging the 3D trace metal and metalloid distribution in mature wheat and rye grains via laser ablation-ICP-mass spectrometry and micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c6ja00357e},
  volume       = {32},
  year         = {2017},
}

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