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African Trypanosomes undermine humoral responses and vaccine development : link with inflammatory responses?

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Abstract
African trypanosomosis is a debilitating disease of great medical and socioeconomical importance. It is caused by strictly extracellular protozoan parasites capable of infecting all vertebrate classes including human, livestock, and game animals. To survive within their mammalian host, trypanosomes have evolved efficient immune escape mechanisms and manipulate the entire host immune response, including the humoral response. This report provides an overview of how trypanosomes initially trigger and subsequently undermine the development of an effective host antibody response. Indeed, results available to date obtained in both natural and experimental infection models show that trypanosomes impair homeostatic B-cell lymphopoiesis, B-cell maturation and survival and B-cell memory development. Data on B-cell dysfunctioning in correlation with parasite virulence and trypanosome-mediated inflammation will be discussed, as well as the impact of trypanosomosis on heterologous vaccine efficacy and diagnosis. Therefore, new strategies aiming at enhancing vaccination efficacy could benefit from a combination of (i) early parasite diagnosis, (ii) anti-trypanosome (drugs) treatment, and (iii) anti-inflammatory treatment that collectively might allow B-cell recovery and improve vaccination.
Keywords
B-cell lymphopoiesis, African trypanosomosis, vaccination strategies, inflammation, T-cells, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), VARIANT SURFACE GLYCOPROTEIN, EFLORNITHINE COMBINATION THERAPY, BLOOD-STREAM FORM, T-CELL RESPONSES, NITRIC-OXIDE, ANTIGENIC VARIATION, SLEEPING SICKNESS, TSETSE-FLY, BRUCEI-RHODESIENSE, GENE-EXPRESSION

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MLA
Stijlemans, Benoit, et al. “African Trypanosomes Undermine Humoral Responses and Vaccine Development : Link with Inflammatory Responses?” FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY, vol. 8, 2017, doi:10.3389/fimmu.2017.00582.
APA
Stijlemans, B., Radwanska, M., De Trez, C., & Magez, S. (2017). African Trypanosomes undermine humoral responses and vaccine development : link with inflammatory responses? FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY, 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2017.00582
Chicago author-date
Stijlemans, Benoit, Magdalena Radwanska, Carl De Trez, and Stefan Magez. 2017. “African Trypanosomes Undermine Humoral Responses and Vaccine Development : Link with Inflammatory Responses?” FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2017.00582.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Stijlemans, Benoit, Magdalena Radwanska, Carl De Trez, and Stefan Magez. 2017. “African Trypanosomes Undermine Humoral Responses and Vaccine Development : Link with Inflammatory Responses?” FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY 8. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2017.00582.
Vancouver
1.
Stijlemans B, Radwanska M, De Trez C, Magez S. African Trypanosomes undermine humoral responses and vaccine development : link with inflammatory responses? FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY. 2017;8.
IEEE
[1]
B. Stijlemans, M. Radwanska, C. De Trez, and S. Magez, “African Trypanosomes undermine humoral responses and vaccine development : link with inflammatory responses?,” FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY, vol. 8, 2017.
@article{8528054,
  abstract     = {{African trypanosomosis is a debilitating disease of great medical and socioeconomical importance. It is caused by strictly extracellular protozoan parasites capable of infecting all vertebrate classes including human, livestock, and game animals. To survive within their mammalian host, trypanosomes have evolved efficient immune escape mechanisms and manipulate the entire host immune response, including the humoral response. This report provides an overview of how trypanosomes initially trigger and subsequently undermine the development of an effective host antibody response. Indeed, results available to date obtained in both natural and experimental infection models show that trypanosomes impair homeostatic B-cell lymphopoiesis, B-cell maturation and survival and B-cell memory development. Data on B-cell dysfunctioning in correlation with parasite virulence and trypanosome-mediated inflammation will be discussed, as well as the impact of trypanosomosis on heterologous vaccine efficacy and diagnosis. Therefore, new strategies aiming at enhancing vaccination efficacy could benefit from a combination of (i) early parasite diagnosis, (ii) anti-trypanosome (drugs) treatment, and (iii) anti-inflammatory treatment that collectively might allow B-cell recovery and improve vaccination.}},
  articleno    = {{582}},
  author       = {{Stijlemans, Benoit and Radwanska, Magdalena and De Trez, Carl and Magez, Stefan}},
  issn         = {{1664-3224}},
  journal      = {{FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY}},
  keywords     = {{B-cell lymphopoiesis,African trypanosomosis,vaccination strategies,inflammation,T-cells,macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF),VARIANT SURFACE GLYCOPROTEIN,EFLORNITHINE COMBINATION THERAPY,BLOOD-STREAM FORM,T-CELL RESPONSES,NITRIC-OXIDE,ANTIGENIC VARIATION,SLEEPING SICKNESS,TSETSE-FLY,BRUCEI-RHODESIENSE,GENE-EXPRESSION}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{14}},
  title        = {{African Trypanosomes undermine humoral responses and vaccine development : link with inflammatory responses?}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2017.00582}},
  volume       = {{8}},
  year         = {{2017}},
}

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