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Prevalence of non- aureus staphylococci species causing intramammary infections in Canadian dairy herds

(2017) JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE. 100(7). p.5592-5612
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Abstract
Non-aureus staphylococci (NAS), the microorganisms most frequently isolated from bovine milk worldwide, are a heterogeneous group of numerous species. To establish their importance as a group, the distribution of individual species needs to be determined. In the present study, NAS intramammary infection (IMI) was defined as a milk sample containing >1,000 cfu/ mL in pure or mixed culture that was obtained from a cohort of cows assembled by the Canadian Bovine Mastitis Research Network. Overall, 6,213 (6.3%) of 98,233 quarter-milk samples from 5,149 cows and 20,305 udder quarters were associated with an NAS IMI. Of the 6,213 phenotypically identified NAS isolates, 5,509 (89%) were stored by the Canadian Bovine Mastitis Research Network Mastitis Pathogen Collection and characterized using partial sequencing of the rpoB housekeeping gene, confirming 5,434 isolates as NAS. Prevalence of each NAS species IMI was estimated using Bayesian models, with presence of a specific NAS species as the outcome. Overall quarter-level NAS IMI prevalence was 26%. The most prevalent species causing IMI were Staphylococcus chromogenes (13%), Staphylococcus simulans (4%), Staphylococcus haemolyticus (3%), Staphylococcus xylosus (2%), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (1%). The prevalence of NAS IMI as a group was highest in first-parity heifers and was evenly distributed throughout cows in parities >2. The IMI prevalence of some species such as S. chromogenes, S. simulans, and S. epidermidis differed among parities. Overall prevalence of NAS IMI was 35% at calving, decreased over the next 10 d, and then gradually increased until the end of lactation. The prevalence of S. chromogenes, Staphylococcus gallinarum, Staphylococcus cohnii, and Staphylococcus capitis was highest at calving, whereas the prevalence of S. chromogenes, S. haemolyticus, S. xylosus, and S. cohnii increased during lactation. Although the overall prevalence of NAS IMI was similar across barn types, the prevalence of S. simulans, S. xylosus, S. cohnii, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, S. capitis, and Staphylococcus arlettae IMI was higher in tiestall barns; the prevalence of S. epidermidis IMI was lowest; and the prevalence of S. chromogenes and Staphylococcus sciuri IMI was highest in bedded pack barns. Staphylococcus simulans, S. epidermidis, S. xylosus, and S. cohnii IMI were more prevalent in herds with intermediate to high bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) and S. haemolyticus IMI was more prevalent in herds with high BMSCC, whereas other common NAS species IMI were equally prevalent in all 3 BMSCC categories. Distribution of NAS species IMI differed among the 4 regions of Canada. In conclusion, distribution differed considerably among NAS species IMI; therefore, accurate identification (species level) is essential for studying NAS epidemiology.
Keywords
dairy, mastitis, intramammary infection, coagulase-negative staphylococci, prevalence, COAGULASE-NEGATIVE STAPHYLOCOCCI, SOMATIC-CELL COUNT, SKIN NORMAL FLORA, MASTITIS PATHOGENS, RISK-FACTORS, BOVINE MASTITIS, UDDER HEALTH, HEIFER MASTITIS, MAMMARY-GLAND, MILK-YIELD

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Citation

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Chicago
Condas, Larissa AZ, Jeroen De Buck, Diego B Nobrega, Domonique A Carson, Sohail Naushad, Sarne De Vliegher, Ruth N Zadoks, et al. 2017. “Prevalence of Non- Aureus Staphylococci Species Causing Intramammary Infections in Canadian Dairy Herds.” Journal of Dairy Science 100 (7): 5592–5612.
APA
Condas, L. A., De Buck, J., Nobrega, D. B., Carson, D. A., Naushad, S., De Vliegher, S., Zadoks, R. N., et al. (2017). Prevalence of non- aureus staphylococci species causing intramammary infections in Canadian dairy herds. JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE, 100(7), 5592–5612.
Vancouver
1.
Condas LA, De Buck J, Nobrega DB, Carson DA, Naushad S, De Vliegher S, et al. Prevalence of non- aureus staphylococci species causing intramammary infections in Canadian dairy herds. JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE. 2017;100(7):5592–612.
MLA
Condas, Larissa AZ, Jeroen De Buck, Diego B Nobrega, et al. “Prevalence of Non- Aureus Staphylococci Species Causing Intramammary Infections in Canadian Dairy Herds.” JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE 100.7 (2017): 5592–5612. Print.
@article{8527185,
  abstract     = {Non-aureus staphylococci (NAS), the microorganisms most frequently isolated from bovine milk worldwide, are a heterogeneous group of numerous species. To establish their importance as a group, the distribution of individual species needs to be determined. In the present study, NAS intramammary infection (IMI) was defined as a milk sample containing {\textrangle}1,000 cfu/ mL in pure or mixed culture that was obtained from a cohort of cows assembled by the Canadian Bovine Mastitis Research Network. Overall, 6,213 (6.3\%) of 98,233 quarter-milk samples from 5,149 cows and 20,305 udder quarters were associated with an NAS IMI. Of the 6,213 phenotypically identified NAS isolates, 5,509 (89\%) were stored by the Canadian Bovine Mastitis Research Network Mastitis Pathogen Collection and characterized using partial sequencing of the rpoB housekeeping gene, confirming 5,434 isolates as NAS. Prevalence of each NAS species IMI was estimated using Bayesian models, with presence of a specific NAS species as the outcome. Overall quarter-level NAS IMI prevalence was 26\%. The most prevalent species causing IMI were Staphylococcus chromogenes (13\%), Staphylococcus simulans (4\%), Staphylococcus haemolyticus (3\%), Staphylococcus xylosus (2\%), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (1\%). The prevalence of NAS IMI as a group was highest in first-parity heifers and was evenly distributed throughout cows in parities {\textrangle}2. The IMI prevalence of some species such as S. chromogenes, S. simulans, and S. epidermidis differed among parities. Overall prevalence of NAS IMI was 35\% at calving, decreased over the next 10 d, and then gradually increased until the end of lactation. The prevalence of S. chromogenes, Staphylococcus gallinarum, Staphylococcus cohnii, and Staphylococcus capitis was highest at calving, whereas the prevalence of S. chromogenes, S. haemolyticus, S. xylosus, and S. cohnii increased during lactation. Although the overall prevalence of NAS IMI was similar across barn types, the prevalence of S. simulans, S. xylosus, S. cohnii, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, S. capitis, and Staphylococcus arlettae IMI was higher in tiestall barns; the prevalence of S. epidermidis IMI was lowest; and the prevalence of S. chromogenes and Staphylococcus sciuri IMI was highest in bedded pack barns. Staphylococcus simulans, S. epidermidis, S. xylosus, and S. cohnii IMI were more prevalent in herds with intermediate to high bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) and S. haemolyticus IMI was more prevalent in herds with high BMSCC, whereas other common NAS species IMI were equally prevalent in all 3 BMSCC categories. Distribution of NAS species IMI differed among the 4 regions of Canada. In conclusion, distribution differed considerably among NAS species IMI; therefore, accurate identification (species level) is essential for studying NAS epidemiology.},
  author       = {Condas, Larissa AZ and De Buck, Jeroen and Nobrega, Diego B and Carson, Domonique A and Naushad, Sohail and De Vliegher, Sarne and Zadoks, Ruth N and Middleton, John R and Dufour, Simon and Kastelic, John P and Barkema, Herman W},
  issn         = {0022-0302},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {7},
  pages        = {5592--5612},
  title        = {Prevalence of non- aureus staphylococci species causing intramammary infections in Canadian dairy herds},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2016-12478},
  volume       = {100},
  year         = {2017},
}

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