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Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans is the predominant chytrid fungus in Vietnamese salamanders

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Abstract
The amphibian chytrid fungi, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and B. salamandrivorans (Bsal), pose a major threat to amphibian biodiversity. Recent evidence suggests Southeast Asia as a potential cradle for both fungi, which likely resulted in widespread host-pathogen co-existence. We sampled 583 salamanders from 8 species across Vietnam in 55 locations for Bsal and Bd, determined scaled mass index as a proxy for fitness and collected environmental data. Bsal was found within 14 of the 55 habitats (2 of which it was detected in 2013), in 5 salamandrid species, with a prevalence of 2.92%. The globalized pandemic lineage of Bd was found within one pond on one species with a prevalence of 0.69%. Combined with a complete lack of correlation between infection and individual body condition and absence of indication of associated disease, this suggests low level pathogen endemism and Bsal and Bd co-existence with Vietnamese salamandrid populations. Bsal was more widespread than Bd, and occurs at temperatures higher than tolerated by the type strain, suggesting a wider thermal niche than currently known. Therefore, this study provides support for the hypothesis that these chytrid fungi may be endemic to Asia and that species within this region may act as a disease reservoir.
Keywords
POPULATION DECLINES, EMERGING DISEASE, SP-NOV, DENDROBATIDIS, AMPHIBIANS, CHYTRIDIOMYCOSIS, EXTINCTION, INFECTION, DYNAMICS

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Chicago
Laking, Alexandra, Hai Ngoc Ngo, Frank Pasmans, An Martel, and Tao Thien Nguyen. 2017. “Batrachochytrium Salamandrivorans Is the Predominant Chytrid Fungus in Vietnamese Salamanders.” Scientific Reports 7.
APA
Laking, A., Ngo, H. N., Pasmans, F., Martel, A., & Nguyen, T. T. (2017). Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans is the predominant chytrid fungus in Vietnamese salamanders. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, 7. Presented at the SEH 19th European Congress of Herpetology.
Vancouver
1.
Laking A, Ngo HN, Pasmans F, Martel A, Nguyen TT. Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans is the predominant chytrid fungus in Vietnamese salamanders. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS. 2017;7.
MLA
Laking, Alexandra, Hai Ngoc Ngo, Frank Pasmans, et al. “Batrachochytrium Salamandrivorans Is the Predominant Chytrid Fungus in Vietnamese Salamanders.” SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 7 (2017): n. pag. Print.
@article{8526646,
  abstract     = {The amphibian chytrid fungi, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and B. salamandrivorans (Bsal), pose a major threat to amphibian biodiversity. Recent evidence suggests Southeast Asia as a potential cradle for both fungi, which likely resulted in widespread host-pathogen co-existence. We sampled 583 salamanders from 8 species across Vietnam in 55 locations for Bsal and Bd, determined scaled mass index as a proxy for fitness and collected environmental data. Bsal was found within 14 of the 55 habitats (2 of which it was detected in 2013), in 5 salamandrid species, with a prevalence of 2.92\%. The globalized pandemic lineage of Bd was found within one pond on one species with a prevalence of 0.69\%. Combined with a complete lack of correlation between infection and individual body condition and absence of indication of associated disease, this suggests low level pathogen endemism and Bsal and Bd co-existence with Vietnamese salamandrid populations. Bsal was more widespread than Bd, and occurs at temperatures higher than tolerated by the type strain, suggesting a wider thermal niche than currently known. Therefore, this study provides support for the hypothesis that these chytrid fungi may be endemic to Asia and that species within this region may act as a disease reservoir.},
  articleno    = {44443},
  author       = {Laking, Alexandra and Ngo, Hai Ngoc and Pasmans, Frank and Martel, An and Nguyen, Tao Thien},
  issn         = {2045-2322},
  journal      = {SCIENTIFIC REPORTS},
  keyword      = {POPULATION DECLINES,EMERGING DISEASE,SP-NOV,DENDROBATIDIS,AMPHIBIANS,CHYTRIDIOMYCOSIS,EXTINCTION,INFECTION,DYNAMICS},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {Salzburg, Austria},
  pages        = {5},
  title        = {Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans is the predominant chytrid fungus in Vietnamese salamanders},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep44443},
  volume       = {7},
  year         = {2017},
}

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