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Nitrogen cycling in bioregenerative life support systems : challenges for waste refinery and food production processes

Peter Clauwaert (UGent) , Maarten Muys, Abbas Alloul, Jolien De Paepe (UGent) , Amanda Luther (UGent) , Xiaoyan Sun (UGent) , Chiara Ilgrande (UGent) , Marlies Christiaens (UGent) , Xiaona Hu (UGent) , Dongdong Zhang (UGent) , et al.
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Abstract
In order to sustain human life in an isolated environment, an efficient conversion of wasted nutrients to food might become mandatory. This is particularly the case for space missions where resupply from earth or in-situ resource utilization is not possible or desirable. A combination of different technologies is needed to allow full recycling of e.g. nitrogenous compounds in space. In this review, an overview is given of the different essential processes and technologies that enable closure of the nitrogen cycle in Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSS). Firstly, a set of biological and physicochemical refinery stages ensures efficient conversion of waste products into the building blocks, followed by the production of food with a range of biological methods. For each technology, bottlenecks are identified. Furthermore, challenges and outlooks are presented at the integrated system level. Space adaptation and integration deserve key attention to enable the recovery of nitrogen for the production of nutritional food in space, but also in closed loop systems on earth.
Keywords
Resource recovery, Space, Single cell protein, Food production, Organic waste, Urine, CELSS, SUPERCRITICAL WATER OXIDATION, SOURCE-SEPARATED URINE, SPIRULINA-PLATENSIS, BIOMASS PRODUCTION, SUBCRITICAL WATER, HYDROTHERMAL LIQUEFACTION, SPACE MISSIONS, AMINO-ACIDS, PHOTOTROPHIC BACTERIA, ARTHROSPIRA-PLATENSIS

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Chicago
Clauwaert, Peter, Maarten Muys, Abbas Alloul, Jolien De Paepe, Amanda Luther, Xiaoyan Sun, Chiara Ilgrande, et al. 2017. “Nitrogen Cycling in Bioregenerative Life Support Systems : Challenges for Waste Refinery and Food Production Processes.” Progress in Aerospace Sciences 91: 87–98.
APA
Clauwaert, P., Muys, M., Alloul, A., De Paepe, J., Luther, A., Sun, X., Ilgrande, C., et al. (2017). Nitrogen cycling in bioregenerative life support systems : challenges for waste refinery and food production processes. PROGRESS IN AEROSPACE SCIENCES, 91, 87–98.
Vancouver
1.
Clauwaert P, Muys M, Alloul A, De Paepe J, Luther A, Sun X, et al. Nitrogen cycling in bioregenerative life support systems : challenges for waste refinery and food production processes. PROGRESS IN AEROSPACE SCIENCES. 2017;91:87–98.
MLA
Clauwaert, Peter, Maarten Muys, Abbas Alloul, et al. “Nitrogen Cycling in Bioregenerative Life Support Systems : Challenges for Waste Refinery and Food Production Processes.” PROGRESS IN AEROSPACE SCIENCES 91 (2017): 87–98. Print.
@article{8526114,
  abstract     = {In order to sustain human life in an isolated environment, an efficient conversion of wasted nutrients to food might become mandatory. This is particularly the case for space missions where resupply from earth or in-situ resource utilization is not possible or desirable. A combination of different technologies is needed to allow full recycling of e.g. nitrogenous compounds in space. In this review, an overview is given of the different essential processes and technologies that enable closure of the nitrogen cycle in Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSS). Firstly, a set of biological and physicochemical refinery stages ensures efficient conversion of waste products into the building blocks, followed by the production of food with a range of biological methods. For each technology, bottlenecks are identified. Furthermore, challenges and outlooks are presented at the integrated system level. Space adaptation and integration deserve key attention to enable the recovery of nitrogen for the production of nutritional food in space, but also in closed loop systems on earth.},
  author       = {Clauwaert, Peter and Muys, Maarten and Alloul, Abbas and De Paepe, Jolien and Luther, Amanda and Sun, Xiaoyan and Ilgrande, Chiara and Christiaens, Marlies and Hu, Xiaona and Zhang, Dongdong and Lindeboom, Ralph and Sas, Benedikt and Rabaey, Korneel and Boon, Nico and Ronsse, Frederik and Geelen, Danny and Vlaeminck, Siegfried},
  issn         = {0376-0421},
  journal      = {PROGRESS IN AEROSPACE SCIENCES},
  keyword      = {Resource recovery,Space,Single cell protein,Food production,Organic waste,Urine,CELSS,SUPERCRITICAL WATER OXIDATION,SOURCE-SEPARATED URINE,SPIRULINA-PLATENSIS,BIOMASS PRODUCTION,SUBCRITICAL WATER,HYDROTHERMAL LIQUEFACTION,SPACE MISSIONS,AMINO-ACIDS,PHOTOTROPHIC BACTERIA,ARTHROSPIRA-PLATENSIS},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {87--98},
  title        = {Nitrogen cycling in bioregenerative life support systems : challenges for waste refinery and food production processes},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paerosci.2017.04.002},
  volume       = {91},
  year         = {2017},
}

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